Sufism and Folk Islam
From the earliest days of Islam, some Muslims have been attracted to mystical interpretations of their religion. In Turkey, at least since the thirteenth century, Islamic mysticism has been expressed through participation in Sufi brotherhoods that ser
ve as centers of spiritual and social life. The term Sufi
derives from the Arabic suf
, which means wool. Early Muslims used the term Sufi
to refer to fellow believers who wore simple woolen garments to demonstrate their rejection of materialism and worldly temptations and their devotion to a life of asceticism and prayer. Eventually, some Sufis who had acquired reputations for their learnin
g and piety attracted disciples who aspired to learn from and emulate these Sufi masters. Initially, Sufi followers were like students whose bonds to a Sufi teacher were based on personal loyalty. Since the twelfth century, however, most Sufis have organi
zed themselves into orders or brotherhoods (tarikat
; pl., tarikatlar
--see Glossary) that follow the teachings of a particular Sufi master.
Many Sufi tarikatlar
established institutional bases, called tekke
(lodges), that lasted for several generations and, in some instances, even for centuries. For example, two of contemporary Turkey's largest tarikatlar
, the Naksibendi and the Kadiri, date back at least to the fourteenth century. Some tarikatlar
carry the name of the founding Sufi master, the seyh
(in Arabic, shaykh
). One example is the Mevlevi brotherhood. Its members popularly are called whirling dervishes because of the rhythmic whirling they engage in as a spiritual exercise and a means to achieve ecstatic proximity to God. The brotherhood is named after its fou
nder, Mevlana (Jalal ad Din Rumi, d. 1273). Ordinarily, a designated successor to the seyh
inherited his position of leadership as well as the mantle of his spiritual power. Induction into a particular tarikat
became regulated and usually depended on the performance of prescribed initiation procedures. Initiates were placed at different levels, depending on the instruction they had mastered. Some of the larger Sufi tarikatlar
established branches and through evkaf
accumulated land and buildings, which functioned as tekkes
, Kuran schools, residential monasteries, orphanages, and hospices.
The early tarikatlar
were strongly influenced by Shia doctrines. Consequently, the political conflicts between the Sunni Ottoman and Shia Safavi dynasties affected the Sufi orders in Turkey. Sunni tarikatlar
eventually deemphasized such practices as the veneration of Ali ibn Abu Talib and received official patronage from some Ottoman sultans. However, at least one Shia tarikat
, the Bektasi, supported the Ottomans and actually exercised significant political influence without changing their heterodox beliefs. The Bektasi and the Sunni tarikatlar
also served an important social function by providing educational and social welfare services, constituting a means of social mobility, and offering spiritual guidance to the people, especially in rural areas.
Folk Islam in Turkey has derived many of its popular practices from Sufism. Particular Sufi seyhs
--and occasionally other individuals reputed to be pious--were regarded after death as saints having special powers to mediate between believers and God. Veneration of saints (both male and female) and pilgrimages to their shrines and graves represent an
important aspect of popular Islam in both the city and the country. Folk Islam has continued to embrace such practices although the veneration of saints officially has been discouraged since the 1930s. Plaques posted in various sanctuaries forbid the ligh
ting of candles, the offering of votive objects, and related devotional activities in these places.
Data as of January 1995