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June 15, 2024  

The Columbia Encyclopedia

The Columbia Encyclopedia - Key to Pronunciation

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sofa (sf), item (tm), easily (zl), cannon (knn), circus (srks)
act (kt), bat (bt)
ape (p), fail (fl), day (d)
air (r), care (kr)
art (rt), father (fthr)
b back (bk), labor (lbr), cab (kb)
ch chin (chn), hatchet (hcht), rich (rch)
d dock (dk), lady (ld), sad (sd)
end (nd), steady (std), met (mt)
eve (v), clear (klr), see (s)
f fat (ft), phase (fz), cough (kf)
g get (gt), bigger (bgr), tag (tg)
h hand (hnd), ahead (hd)
hw wheel (hwl), which (hwch)
it (t), pill (pl), mirror (mrr)
iron (rn), eye (), buyer (br)
j jam (jm), ginger (jnjr), edge (j)
k kit (kt), tackle (tkl), cook (kk)
l little (ltl), holly (hl), pull (pl)
m man (mn), hammer (hmr), climb (klm)
n new (n), known (nn), winner (wnr)
ng singing (sngng), finger (fnggr), sang (sng), sank (sngk)
hot (ht), body (bd)
over (vr), hope (hp), grow (gr)
orbit (rbt), fall (fl), saw (s)
foot (ft), wolf (wlf), put (pt), pure (pyr)
boot (bt), lose (lz), drew (dr), true (tr)
oi oil (oil), royal (roil), boy (boi)
ou out (out), crowd (kroud), how (hou)
p pipe (pp), happy (hp)
r road (rd), appeared (prd), carpenter (krpntr)
s so (s), cite (st), baste (bst)
sh shall (shl), sure (shr), nation (nshn)
t tight (tt), better (btr), talked (tkt)
th thin (thn), bath (bth)
th then (thn), father (fthr), bathe (bth)
but (bt), flood (fld), some (sm)
curl (krl), girl (grl), fern (frn), worm (wrm)
v vest (vst), trivial (trvl), eve (v)
w wax (wks), twins (twnz)
y you (y), onion (nyn)
z zipper (zpr), ease (z), treads (trdz)
zh pleasure (plzhr), rouge (rzh)
as in French peu (p), German Goethe (gt)
as in French Cluny (kln)
kh as in German ach (kh), ich (kh); Scottish loch (lkh)
N this symbol indicates that the preceding vowel is nasal as in French cinq (sNk), un (N), sans (sN), tombe (tNb), en (N); Portuguese So Joo (souN zhwouN)
primary accent, written after accented vowel or syllable: Nebraska (nbrsk), James Buchanan (byknn)
secondary accent: Mississippi (mssp)
dash, replacing obvious portion of pronunciation: hegemony (hjmn, h–, hjmn, hg–)
- hyphen, to prevent ambiguity in syllabification: Erlanger (rlng-r), dishearten (ds-hrtn)

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