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WILDLIFE DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

WILDLIFE SPECIES: Sialia sialis | Eastern Bluebird
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Eastern bluebirds breed from southern Saskatchewan east to southern Nova Scotia and south through the eastern United States [2]. In the West it occurs casually along the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado, more commonly in the Dakotas through central Nebraska, central Kansas, and central Oklahoma to central and southeastern Texas, and south to most of Mexico [41,70]. Eastern bluebird was listed in 1969 as a species whose present occurrence in Arizona is limited, unknown, or only suspected [64], although more recent work [46] lists Arizona as within its range. Eastern bluebirds winter in the middle parts of the United States south to Nuevo Leon, the Gulf Coast, and southern Florida, and rarely to western Cuba [2]. Ranges of subspecies are as follows: Florida bluebird: Resident throughout peninsular Florida Tamaulipas bluebird: Tamaulipas north to the Rio Grande valley in south-central Texas Azure bluebird: Transition zone from the mountains of southern Arizona south to Jalisco, Oaxaca, and Vera Cruz (Guerrero). Winters south to northern Guatemala [2,6]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White-red-jack pine FRES12 Longleaf-slash pine FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak-pine FRES15 Oak-hickory FRES39 Prairie STATES :
AL AK AZ AR CO CT DE FL GA IL
IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN
MS MO MT NE NH NJ NY NC ND OH
OK PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA
WV WI WY DC

MB NB NF NS ON PE PQ SK

MEXICO
BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 14 Great Plains 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K070 Sandsage-bluestem prairie K074 Bluestem prairie K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie K076 Blackland prairie K077 Bluestem-sacahuista prairie K081 Oak savanna K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100 K083 Cedar glades K084 Cross Timbers K088 Fayette prairie K089 Black Belt K095 Great Lakes pine forest K100 Oak-hickory forest K104 Appalachian oak forest K110 Northeastern oak-pine forest K111 Oak-hickory-pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K116 Subtropical pine forest SAF COVER TYPES : 1 Jack pine 14 Northern pin oak 15 Red pine 20 White pine-northern red oak-red maple 21 Eastern white pine 40 Post oak-blackjack oak 42 Bur oak 43 Bear oak 44 Chestnut oak 45 Pitch pine 46 Eastern redcedar 50 Black locust 51 White pine-chestnut oak 52 White oak-black oak-northern red oak 53 White oak 55 Northern red oak 64 Sassafras-persimmon 67 Mohrs (shin) oak 70 Longleaf pine 71 Longleaf pine-scrub oak 72 Southern scrub oak 74 Cabbage palmetto 75 Shortleaf pine 76 Shortleaf pine-oak 78 Virginia pine-oak 79 Virginia pine 80 Loblolly pine-shortleaf pine 81 Loblolly pine 82 Loblolly pine-hardwood 83 Longleaf pine-slash pine 84 Slash pine 85 Slash pine-hardwood 109 Hawthorn 110 Black oak 111 South Florida slash pine SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : 601 Bluestem prairie 602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed 603 Prairie sandreed-needlegrass 604 Bluestem-grama prairie 606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass 608 Wheatgrass-grama-needlegrass 609 Wheatgrass-grama 610 Wheatgrass 611 Blue grama-buffalograss 612 Sagebrush-grass 708 Bluestem-dropseed 709 Bluestem-grama 710 Bluestem prairie 711 Bluestem-sacahuista prairie 717 Little bluestem-Indiangrass-Texas wintergrass 720 Sand bluestem-little bluestem (dunes) 721 Sand bluestem-little bluestem (plains) 731 Cross timbers-Oklahoma 732 Cross timbers-Texas (little bluestem-post oak) 801 Savanna 802 Missouri prairie 804 Tall fescue 809 Mixed hardwood and pine 810 Longleaf pine-turkey oak hills 811 South Florida flatwoods 812 North Florida flatwoods PLANT COMMUNITIES : Eastern bluebirds are found in a wide range of plant communities with open overstories and in openings within woodlands. They are usually found at low elevations and are frequently observed in oak (Quercus spp.) woodlands [46]. In southern Michigan, oak-pine (Pinus spp.) woodlands frequented by eastern bluebirds were dominated by black oak (Quercus velutina), pin oak (Q. palustris), northern red oak (Q. rubra), white oak (Q. alba), eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), red pine (P. resinosa), jack pine (P. banksiana), and Scotch pine (P. sylvestris). Eastern bluebirds are also commonly found in old fields characterized by hawthorns (Crataegus spp.), black walnut (Juglans nigra), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), black cherry (Prunus serotina), chokecherry (P. virginiana), staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina), and multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) [46]. Other eastern bluebird sites include the jack pine plains of Huron National Forest, dominated by jack pine, northern pin oak (Quercus ellipsoidalis), and scarlet oak (Q. coccinea). Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), blueberries (Vaccinium spp.), and sweet fern (Comptonia peregrina) are characteristic understory components [41]. Eastern bluebirds are also present in cutover and burned pine-oak woodlands [46] and in Wisconsin jack pine savanna. The latter habitat type is maintained by frequent low-severity fire [68]. Eastern bluebirds are common in regenerating stands of central and southeastern oak-pine forests [17]. In western Virginia eastern bluebirds were observed in the Appalachian Mountains in lower and midslope forests dominated by scarlet oak, black oak, chestnut oak (Q. prinus), and white oak [11]. Wintering areas used by eastern bluebirds in the Apalachicola National Forest included pasture, open longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) woods, and pine-oak woodlands usually dominated by live oak (Q. virginiana) with Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides) [41]. REFERENCES : NO-ENTRY

Related categories for Wildlife Species: Sialia sialis | Eastern Bluebird

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Information Courtesy: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. Fire Effects Information System

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