Wildlife, Animals, and Plants
BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
SPECIES: Gaylussacia frondosa | Dangleberry
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS :
Dangleberry is a native, deciduous, freely branched slender shrub
[26,33]. The typical variety grows to 6 feet (2 m) in height, G. f.
var. tomentosa grows to 3 feet (1 m) in height, and G. f. var. nana
grows to 2 feet (0.6 m) in height . The fruit is a fleshy drupe
containing around 10 seeds [13,33].
Aerial stems arise from extensively branched rhizomes to form clones
. The aerial stems are usually 3 to 72 inches (7.6-183 cm) apart on
the rhizomes. The woody rhizomes are usually 0.13 to 0.38 inches
(0.3-1.0 cm) in diameter. They are generally confined to the humus
layer and the top 2 inches (5 cm) of the A1 soil horizon. Roots are
generally confined to the same soil level as the rhizomes .
RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM :
REGENERATION PROCESSES :
Dangleberry regenerates by vegetative reproduction and seed.
Existing dangleberry colonies regenerate after disturbance primarily by
sprouting from rhizomes. Destruction of aboveground stems stimulates
Dangleberry probably colonizes new sites by animal-dispersed seed .
Dangleberry was present in the understory of an oak (Quercus spp.)-pine
woods in the New Jersey pine barrens but absent from the seedbank .
SITE CHARACTERISTICS :
Dangleberry occurs primarily on the southeastern United States coastal
plains and is infrequent on the Piedmont. It grows in sandy and rocky
woods and on the margins of shrub bogs and swamps [5,14,26].
Dangleberry grows on acidic, low-nutrient, poorly to well-drained soils
[1,12,18,28]. It grows on both organic and mineral soils but prefers an
intermediate soil type with a shallow organic layer . At the
outermost fringe of a bog in North Carolina, a tall shrub community
which included dangleberry occurred on soil with a 10- to 12-inch (25-30
cm) organic layer .
Dangleberry is a facultative phreatophyte; its roots extend to the water
table in lowland areas, but do not reach the water table in upland areas .
SUCCESSIONAL STATUS :
Facultative Seral Species
Dangleberry is probably intermediate in shade tolerance but may be more
productive when grown in sunlight. It is an important component in
older stands of the New Jersey pine barrens . In Massachusetts,
dangleberry occurs in a mid- to late-successional forest dominated by
white oak (Quercus alba), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), and
sassafras (Sassafras albidum) .
SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT :
Dangleberry flowers March through May, and fruits mature July through
Related categories for Species: Gaylussacia frondosa