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SPECIES: Ribes velutinum | Desert Gooseberry
ABBREVIATION : RIBVEL SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : RIVE RIVEG RIVEV COMMON NAMES : desert gooseberry Gooding's gooseberry TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for desert gooseberry is Ribes velutinum Greene [8,30]. It is a memeber of the gooseberry family (Grossulariaceae). Kartesz [30] recognizes the following two varieties: R. v. var. goodingii (M. E. Peck) C. L. Hitchc. (Gooding's gooseberry) R. v. var. velutinum Greene (desert gooseberry) A third variety of desert gooseberry may be described based on specimens collected in the Salmon River Canyon, near the mouth of Panther Creek, Idaho [29]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY COMPILED BY AND DATE : G. Winkler, August 1987 LAST REVISED BY AND DATE : K. Anna Marshall, May 1995 AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Marshall, K. Anna. 1995; Winkler, G. 1987. Ribes velutinum. In: Remainder of Citation


SPECIES: Ribes velutinum | Desert Gooseberry
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Desert gooseberry ranges east from southeastern Washington and eastern Oregon to Idaho, south to Arizona, and west to the Tehachapi Mountains of California and the Sierra Nevada [8,9,28]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES29 Sagebrush FRES34 Chaparral-mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon-juniper STATES : AZ CA ID NV OR UT WA ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS : DEVA GRCA LAME LABE ZION BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K010 Ponderosa shrub forest K011 Western ponderosa forest K022 Great Basin pine forest K023 Juniper-pinyon woodland K024 Juniper steppe woodland K031 Oak-juniper woodlands K032 Transition between K031 and K037 K037 Mountain-mahogany-oak scrub K038 Great Basin sagebrush K055 Sagebrush steppe SAF COVER TYPES : 217 Aspen 220 Rocky Mountain juniper 237 Interior ponderosa pine 238 Western juniper 239 Pinyon-juniper SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : 104 Antelope bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass 105 Antelope bitterbrush-Idaho fescue 107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass 109 Ponderosa pine shrubland 209 Montane shrubland 210 Bitterbrush 314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass 315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue 317 Bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass 318 Bitterbrush-Idaho fescue 322 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany-bluebunch wheatgrass 401 Basin big sagebrush 402 Mountain big sagebrush 403 Wyoming big sagebrush 406 Low sagebrush 407 Stiff sagebrush 412 Juniper-pinyon woodland 415 Curlleaf mountain-mahogany 416 True mountain-mahogany 417 Littleleaf mountain-mahogany 419 Bittercherry 420 Snowbrush 421 Chokecherry-serviceberry-rose 504 Juniper-pinyon pine woodland 509 Transition between oak-juniper woodland and mahogany-oak association 612 Sagebrush-grass 733 Juniper-oak HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Desert gooseberry occurs in sagebrush and mountain brush communities, coniferous forests, and woodlands in the Great Basin and adjacent mountains. In addition to the plant associations and cover types listed in preceding slots, desert gooseberry occurs in the desert gooseberry/basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus) community along the northern periphery of Lava Beds National Monument, California [4]. Species commonly associated with desert gooseberry but not previously mentioned include California red fir (Abies magnifica), white fir (A. concolor), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), whitebark pine (P. albicaulis) Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla), serviceberry (Amelanchier spp.), spiny hopsage (Grayia spinosa), cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus spp.), broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), wax currant (Ribes cereum), bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides), western needlegrass (Stipa occidentalis), and horsebrush (Tetradymia spp.) [4,33,34,35].


SPECIES: Ribes velutinum | Desert Gooseberry
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : NO-ENTRY IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Desert gooseberry is fair to poor forage for livestock. Deer, chipmunks, scrub jays, and magpies consume its fruit [13]. Rodents burrow at the base of desert gooseberry; the roots and stems of desert gooseberry help stabilize the walls of their tunnels [32]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Gooseberries (Ribes spp.) are used for making jam, jelly, and pie [15]. Some western Indian tribes used gooseberries for making pemmican [13]. MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Desert gooseberry is an alternate host for white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) which infests five-needled pines. Tree mortality from white pine blister rust is generally less in dry than in moist climates [36]. Because of their association with the rust, Ribes spp. have been targets of various eradication efforts; however, these efforts have not been successful in the western states [7,14].


SPECIES: Ribes velutinum | Desert Gooseberry
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Desert gooseberry is a native, deciduous, nonrhizomatous [29] shrub growing from 3.3 to 6.6 feet (1-2 m) tall [13,28]. Its stout, rigid branches are usually pubescent. The orbicular, three- to five-lobed leaves are 0.2 to 0.8 inch (0.5-2 cm) long and at least as wide [8,28]. Racemes are three- to five-flowered. Hirsute berries are 0.2 to 0.32 inch (0.5-0.8 cm) in diameter [8,13,28]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Desert gooseberry reproduces by seed and sprouts from the root crown following disturbance or fire [10,31,32]. Ribes spp. generally begin fruiting after 3 years [1]. Many seeds fall beneath the parent plant; they are also dispersed by birds and animals. Fallen seeds may remain viable in the soil and duff for many years [19,20]. Seed germination is generally enhanced by scarification and mineral soil [12,19,20]. The burrowing activity of rodents creates soil mounds at the base of desert gooseberry plants. Aerial stems that become buried by the mounds continue to grow and develop roots at stem nodes [32]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Desert gooseberry generally occurs on dry, rocky foothills, mountain slopes, or ridges in coarse, loamy soil [17,23,27] at elevations ranging from 2,310 to 8,250 feet (700-2,500 m) [8,28]. At Lava Beds National Monument, desert gooseberry grows on basalt outcrops and slopes of cinder cones [4]. In singleleaf pinyon-Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) woodlands of Nevada and California, desert gooseberry occurred with significantly (p<.05) greater frequency on north and east slopes than south and west aspects [10]. In the White Pine Mountains of White Pine County, Nevada, desert gooseberry is near its southern distribution. Climate is semiarid with a mean annual precipitation of 9.6 inches (240 mm). Most precipitation falls in the form of snow in early spring and short-duration thunderstorms during summer. The mean annual temperature is 44 degrees Fahrenheit (6.8 deg C). The frost-free period is rarely greater than 100 days [27]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Desert gooseberry is somewhat shade tolerant. It sometimes grows under forest canopy, but it occurs most often and grows most vigorously on open sites. In the Shoshone Range of western Nevada, desert gooseberry occurred as an understory species in curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) communities where canopy cover approached 100 percent [17]. At Lava Beds National Monument, desert gooseberry was a dominant overstory shrub on basalt outcrops [4]. Desert gooseberry can be found in all successional stages of pinyon-juniper woodlands. In Nevada and California, it occurred burned and unburned sites with 95 percent constancy. Percent frequency of desert gooseberry in various seral stages was as follows [10]: seral stage early early-mid mid mid-late late postfire year 1 4-8 15-17 22-60 unburned % frequency 25 72 48 59 56 Median percent cover of desert gooseberry was less than 20 percent. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : The specific phenology of desert gooseberry was not described in the literature. Ribes spp. generally flower from April to June. The fruit of Ribes spp. generally ripens June to September [15].


SPECIES: Ribes velutinum | Desert Gooseberry
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Severe fire that consumes the entire organic mantle probably kills desert gooseberry and may destroy soil-stored seeds [12]. Desert gooseberry survives some fires by sprouting from the root crown [10,31,32]. Desert gooseberry is probably favored by low- to moderate-severity fire because germination of soil-stored seed is generally enhanced by scarification in Ribes spp. [3,12,19,20]. In pinyon-juniper woodlands, where desert gooseberry often occurs, wildfire was a major force in maintaining understory species during presettlement times. Wildfires occurred every 10 to 90 years [36]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)


SPECIES: Ribes velutinum | Desert Gooseberry
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire top-kills or kills desert gooseberry. In White Pine County, Nevada, desert gooseberry was present in trace amounts before prescribed burning in the spring, but it was not present after burning in postfire years 1 and 2. Fire conditions were not described [27]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Desert gooseberry sprouts from the root crown after low- to moderate-severity fire and seedlings may establish after fire. Near Reno, Nevada, desert gooseberry has been described as a "vigorous" sprouter [31]. A summer wildfire burned a big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)/Thurber needlegrass (Stipa thurberiana) community. In postfire year 1 desert gooseberry occurred at a density of 0.06 to 0.08 plants per square meter; "virtually all" plants survived the fire and sprouted. No desert gooseberry seedlings established the first year [31]. In Nevada and California, desert gooseberry occurred on 1- to 60-year old burned sites. The origin of desert gooseberry (seedlings or sprouts) on these sites was not specifically mentioned but the authors described desert gooseberry as a "root-sprouting shrub" [10]. At Lava Beds National Monument, a July 1973 wildfire burned through a bunchgrass community containing a small island of trees and shrubs, including desert gooseberry. In 1977, a July prescribed fire was conducted in a similar community that also included desert gooseberry. The wildfire followed a month with no rain and low humidity. The prescribed fire followed a month with high rainfall (2.04 inches [51 mm]). Fire conditions for both fires were as follows [24]: 1973 wildfire 1977 prescribed fire daytime high temp degrees Fahrenheit 82.4 80.6 degrees Celsius 28.0 27 percent humidity 20 18 percent moisture content of dead wood 0.25-1 inch (0.62-2.54 cm) 3 6 wind speed mi/h 9-12 0.6-7.2 km/h 15-20 1-12 Fire severities were not described. In postfire year 1, average desert gooseberry frequency was less than 1 percent for all treatements (wildfire, prescribed burn, and controls). The cover, average height, and percent of dead branches in individual desert gooseberry crowns were slightly less on the wildfire site in postfire year 1 than on adjacent, unburned sites. Average values for desert gooseberry follow; standard deviations are in parentheses: Percent cover Height Percent dead (cm) crown 1973 wildfire 0.2 (0.6) 81.3 (19.3) 19.3 (16.8) unburned control 0.4 (1.1) 118.8 (26.6) 5.5 (38.5) 1977 prescribed fire 0.1 (0.8) 75.0 (21.2) 89.5 (13.4) DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : At Silver Knoll, north of Reno, Nevada, mounds are formed at the base of desert gooseberry by the burrowing activity of rodents. The mounds may protect the sprouting root crowns of desert gooseberry, making them difficult to reduce with fire. One year after a fire, desert gooseberry plants were sprouting in whorls from burned stems even though they had been completely top-killed by fire [32]. In Nevada and California, desert gooseberry occurred on 1- to 60-year old burned and unburned sites. Eight out of 21 burns had been seeded with grasses, including standard crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum), intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium), and smooth brome (Bromus ineris). Desert gooseberry showed no preference for seeded or nonseeded sites [10].


SPECIES: Ribes velutinum | Desert Gooseberry
REFERENCES : 1. Benedict, W. V.; Harris, T. H. 1931. Experimental Ribes eradication Stanislaus National Forest. Journal of Forestry. 29(5): 709-720. [427] 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 3. Bradley, Anne F.; Fischer, William C.; Noste, Nonan V. 1992. Fire ecology of the forest habitat types of eastern Idaho and western Wyoming. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-290. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 92 p. [19557] 4. Erhard, Dean H. 1979. Plant communities and habitat types in the Lava Beds National Monument, California. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University. 173 p. Thesis. [869] 5. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 6. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 7. Hagle, Susan K.; McDonald, Geral I.; Norby, Eugene A. 1989. White pine blister rust in northern Idaho and western Montana: alternatives for integrated management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-261. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 35 p. [9357] 8. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992] 9. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1961. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 3: Saxifragaceae to Ericaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 614 p. [1167] 10. Koniak, Susan. 1985. Succession in pinyon-juniper woodlands following wildfire in the Great Basin. Great Basin Naturalist. 45(3): 556-566. [1371] 11. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 12. Moss, Virgil D.; Wellner, Charles A. 1953. Aiding blister rust control by silvicultural measures in the western white pine type. Circular No. 919. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 32 p. [12262] 13. Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs of the Great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 342 p. [1702] 14. Offord, H. R.; Van Atta, G. R.; Swanson, H. E. 1940. Chemical and mechanical methods of Ribes eradication in the white pine areas of the western states. Tech. Bull. No. 692. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 50 p. [1795] 15. Pfister, Robert D. 1974. Ribes L.--currant, gooseberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., tech. coord. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 720-727. [1877] 16. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 17. Schultz, Brad W. 1987. Ecology of curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) in western and central Nevada: population structure and dynamics. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 111 p. Thesis. [7064] 18. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362] 19. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1993. The Douglas-fir/pinegrass habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-298. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 83 p. [21512] 20. Steele, Robert; Geier-Hayes, Kathleen. 1989. The Douglas-fir/ninebark habitat type in central Idaho: succession and management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-252. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 65 p. [8136] 21. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 22. Stiles, Edmund W. 1980. Patterns of fruit presentation and seed dispersal in bird-disseminated woody plants in the Eastern deciduous forest. American Naturalist. 116(5): 670-688. [6508] 23. Taye, Alan C. 1983. Flora of the Stansbury Mountains, Utah. Great Basin Naturalist. 43(4): 619-646. [14669] 24. Tiagwad, Tamara E.; Olson, Craig M.; Martin, Robert E. 1982. Single-year response of breeding bird populations to fire in a curlleaf mountainmahogany-big sagebrush community. In: Starkey, Edward E.; Franklin, Jerry F.; Matthews, Jean W., technical coordinators. Ecological research in national parks in the Pacific Northwest; [Date of conference unknown]; [Location of conference unknown]. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Forest Research Lab: 101-110. [8087] 25. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants of the U.S.--alphabetical listing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 954 p. [23104] 26. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [n.d.]. NP Flora [Data base]. Davis, CA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [23119] 27. Ward, Kenneth V. 1977. Two-year vegetation response and successional trends for spring burns in the pinyon-juniper woodland. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 62 p. Thesis. [276] 28. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 29. Brunsfield, S. 1995 [personal communication] 30. Kartesz, John T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II--thesaurus. 2nd ed. Portland, OR: Timber Press. 816 p. [23878] 31. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A. 1978. Population dynamics after wildfires in sagebrush grasslands. Journal of Range Management. 31(4): 283-289. [2657] 32. Borland, Dorothy F. 1988. Native grasses for urban use. In: Davis, Arnold; Stanford, Geoffrey, eds. The prairie: roots of our culture; foundation of our economy: Proceedings, 10th North American prairie conference; 1986 June 22-26; Denton, TX. Dallas, TX: Native Prairie Association of Texas: 04.04: 1-2. [25588] 33. Dealy, J. Edward. 1990. Juniperus occidentalis Hook. western juniper. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 109-115. [13375] 34. Simanton, J. R.; Wingate, G. D.; Weltz, M. A. 1990. Runoff and sediment from a burned sagebrush community. In: Krammes, J. S., technical coordinator. Effects of fire management of Southwestern natural resources: Proceedings of the symposium; 1988 November 15-17; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech, Rep. RM-191. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 180-185. [11287] 35. Vasek, Frank C.; Thorne, Robert F. 1977. Transmontane coniferous vegetation. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley & Sons: 797-832. [4265] 36. Kendall, Katherine C. 1994. Whitebark pine conservation in North American National Parks. In: Schmidt, Wyman C.; Holtmeier, Friedrich-Karl, compilers. Proceedings--international workshop on subalpine stone pines and their environment: the status of our knowledge; 1992 September 5-11; St. Moritz, Switzerland. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-309. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 302-307. [24658] 37. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A. 1981. Demography and fire history of a western juniper stand. Journal of Range Management. 34(6): 501-505. [2659]


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