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Introductory

SPECIES: Rubus discolor | Himalayan Blackberry
ABBREVIATION : RUBDIS SYNONYMS : Rubus procerus Rubus macrostemon Rubus fruticosus Rubus thyrsanthus SCS PLANT CODE : RUDI2 COMMON NAMES : Himalayan blackberry TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of the Himalayan blackberry is Rubus discolor Weihe and Nees [17]. Infrataxa have not been described for this species. Himalayan blackberry hybridizes with a number of Rubus species including R. thyrsiger, R. calvatus, and R. schlechtendalii [6]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY COMPILED BY AND DATE : D. Tirmenstein, October 1989. LAST REVISED BY AND DATE : NO-ENTRY AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Tirmenstein, D. 1989. Rubus discolor. In: Remainder of Citation

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Rubus discolor | Himalayan Blackberry
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : The Himalayan blackberry is a native of the Old World [3,31]. However, it has become widely naturalized in the Northeast from Delaware to Virginia, and in the Pacific Northwest [3]. The Himalayan blackberry occurs from northern California through southern British Columbia eastward to Idaho. It is particularly widespread west of the Cascades [14] and is now abundant along the Snake River in southeastern Washington [13]. It is also locally established in parts of Utah and perhaps Arizona [19,31]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White - red - jack pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce FRES28 Western hardwoods STATES : CA DE ID MD OR UT VA WA BC ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS : EBLA NOCA OLYM REDW SAJU BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K001 Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest K002 Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest K102 Beech - maple forest K106 Northern hardwoods K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest SAF COVER TYPES : 21 Eastern white pine 60 Beech - sugar maple 64 Sassafras - persimmon 78 Virginia pine - oak 79 Virginia pine 80 Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine 81 Loblolly pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 109 Hawthorn 222 Black cottonwood - willow 224 Western hemlock 226 Coastal true fir - hemlock 227 Western redcedar - western hemlock 230 Douglas-fir - western hemlock SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Associated species: A wide variety of weedy species occur with Himalayan blackberry on disturbed sites in the Northeast and Pacific Northwest. The following species commonly grow with Himalayan blackberry in riparian zones of California: trailing blackberry (Rubus ursinus), evergreen blackberry (R. laciniatus), Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii), black cottonwood (P. trichocarpa), oaks (Quercus spp.), arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis), and other willows (Salix spp.) [18,22,28,32].

VALUE AND USE

SPECIES: Rubus discolor | Himalayan Blackberry
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : NO-ENTRY IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Wildlife: The Himalayan blackberry provides food and cover for many wildlife species. Fruits of blackberries are eaten by numerous birds, including the northern bobwhite, scaled quail, ruffed grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, California quail, ring-necked pheasant, blue grouse, gray (Hungarian) partridge, band-tailed pigeon, gray catbird, northern cardinal, American robin, yellow-breasted chat, pine grosbeak, summer tanager, orchard oriole, brown thrasher, thrushes, and towhees [1,30,33]. Mammals such, as the coyote, common opossum, red squirrel, raccoon, gray fox, red fox, skunks, squirrels, chipmunks, and black bear, also feed on blackberries [30,33]. Deer, rabbits, and mountain beaver consume the buds, stems, and leaves of blackberries [30,33]. The Himalayan blackberry is considered a primary elk browse in parts of California, where it is used primarily during the winter months [12]. Porcupines and beaver feed on the cambium, buds, and stems of many species of blackberries [30]. Livestock: Blackberries, in general, provide only poor browse for domestic livestock [30]. However, the specific value of Himalayan blackberry has not been documented. In some areas, this shrub may represent a barrier to the movement of livestock. Domestic sheep occasionally become entangled in the spiny foliage of this sprawling shrub [13]. PALATABILITY : Fruits of blackberries are highly palatable to many birds and mammals. Palatability of Himalayan blackberry browse has not been determined. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : Dense blackberry thickets form suitable nesting sites for many species of birds [33]. Mammals, such as rabbits, red squirrel, black bear, and beaver, use blackberry thickets as hiding or resting sites [30]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Most blackberries are valuable for preventing soil erosion on barren, infertile, disturbed sites [3,30]. The Himalayan blackberry has been successfully planted in riparian areas along Columbia River impoundments in north-central Washington [5]. Good survival was observed up to 5 years after the initial plantings were made [5]. Blackberries may be propagated vegetatively, transplanted, or seeded onto disturbed sites. According to Brinkman [3], seed which has been scarified can be successfully planted in the late summer or early fall. Seed planted in the fall does not require cold treatment. Previously stratified and scarified seed can be planted in the spring. Good results have been obtained after seeds were planted with a drill and covered with 1/8 to 3/16 inch (0.3-0.5 cm) of soil [3]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Himalayan blackberry is the most commonly harvested wild blackberry in western Washington and Oregon, although its fruit is reportedly less flavorful than that of the native trailing blackberry (Rubus ursinus) [7]. It is a preferred berry for fruit pies [7]. The fruit, roots, and stems of blackberries have been used to make various medicinal preparations [3]. Many blackberries are grown in gardens or as ornamentals. Himalayan blackberry was first cultivated in 1890 [3]. MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Competition: The introduced Himalayan blackberry has spread aggressively in many parts of the United States. It is now regarded as a serious pest in parts of the Pacific Northwest, particularly west of the Cascades [14]. Chemical control: Good to excellent control of the Himalayan blackberry can be obtained through the use of glyphosate, picloram + 2,4-D, triclopyr ester, or triclopyr amine [4].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Rubus discolor | Himalayan Blackberry
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : The Himalayan blackberry is a robust, clambering or sprawling, evergreen shrub which grows up to 9.8 feet (3 m) in height [25,31]. Leaves are pinnately to palmately compound, with three to five broad leaflets [25,31]. Mature leaves are green and glaucous above but tomentose beneath [31]. Stems of most blackberries are biennial. Sterile first-year stems, or primocanes, develop from buds at or below the ground surface and bear only leaves [11]. During the second year, lateral branches, known as floricanes, develop in the axils of the primocanes, and produce both leaves and flowers [11]. Perfect flowers are borne in clusters of 3 to 20 [24,31]. Flowers are most commonly white, but rose or reddish flowers also occur [24,31]. Ripe fruit, commonly referred to as "berries," are soft, shiny black and composed of an aggregate of large succulent drupelets [3,25]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Hemicryptophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : The Himalayan blackberry is capable of extensive and vigorous vegetative regeneration [32]. Sexual reproduction may also be important. Reproductive versatility is well represented in the Rubus genus, with sexual reproduction, parthenogenesis (development of the egg without fertilization), pseudogamy (a form of apomixis in which pollination is required), and parthenocarpy (production of fruit without fertilization), occurring widely [6]. The following types of reproduction have been documented in blackberries: (1) sexual reproduction, (2) nonreduction at meiosis on the female, male, or both sides, (3) apomixis (seeds contain embryos of maternal, rather than sexual origin) with segregation, (4) apomixis without segregation, and (5) haploid parthenogenesis [6]. These modes of asexual reproduction contribute significantly to the aggressive, vigorous spread of blackberries. Vegetative regeneration: The mostly biennial stems of blackberries typically develop from perennial rootstocks or creeping stems [11]. Most species within the Rubus genus are capable of sprouting vigorously from root or stem suckers, or rooting stem tips [11]. Although not specifically documented for the Himalayan blackberry, a similar response is probable given the plant's morphology and the speed at which postdisturbance establishment and spread occurs. The Himalayan blackberry is known to spread extensively by trailing stems which root at the nodes [32]. Rapid vegetative spread occurs even in the absence of disturbance. Seed production: Most blackberries produce good seed crops nearly every year [3]. Immature fruit of the Himalayan blackberry is red and hard, but at maturity, fruit becomes shiny black, soft, and succulent [3]. Individual drupelets form an aggregate up to 0.8 inches (2 cm) in length [3,24]. Cleaned seed averages approximately 147,000 per pound (323,789/kg) [3]. Germination: Blackberry seeds have a hard impermeable coat and a dormant embryo [3]. Consequently, germination is often slow. Most blackberries require, as a minimum, warm stratification at 68 to 86 degrees F (20 to 30 degrees C) for 90 days, followed by cold stratification at 36 to 41 degrees F (2 to 5 degrees C) for an additional 90 days [3]. These conditions are frequently encountered naturally as seeds mature in summer and remain in the soil throughout the cold winter months. Laboratory tests indicate that exposure to sulfuric acid solutions or sodium hyperchlorite prior to cold stratification can enhance germination [3]. Seedbanking: Seeds of most blackberries can remain viable when stored in the soil for a period of at least several years [2]. However, the specific length of viability has not been documented for the Himalayan blackberry. Seed dispersal: Seeds of blackberries are readily dispersed by gravity and by many species of birds and mammals. The large succulent fruits are highly sought-after and, after they mature, rarely remain on the plant for long [3]. A hard seedcoat protects the embryo even when the seeds are ingested. Evidence suggests that the action of avian gizzards and exposure to mammalian digestive acids provide scarification which may actually enhance germination [1]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : The Himalayan blackberry typically grows in open weedy sites, such as along field margins, railroad right-of-ways, roadsides, and on abandoned farms [6,14,31]. It is also common in riparian woodlands and intertidal zones of central California [18,22,28,32]. Soils: Blackberries grow well on a variety of barren, infertile soil types [3]. These shrubs tolerate a wide range of soil pH and texture, but do require adequate soil moisture [33]. The Himalayan blackberry appears to be tolerant of periodic flooding by brackish or fresh water [32]. Elevation: Elevational ranges of the Himalayan blackberry have been documented as follows for two western states [19,31]: > 6,000 feet (1,829 m) in AZ from 2,788 to 5,000 feet (850-1,525 m) in UT SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Blackberries are generally most prevalent in early seral communities. In the Northeast, blackberries are aggressive invaders in old field communities [33]. In the West, the introduced Himalayan blackberry commonly occurs as an early seral species in relatively open disturbed areas, such as along roadways or on abandoned homesteads [31]. This blackberry also grows in certain riparian areas of California where it can apparently establish and persist despite periodic inundation by fresh or brackish water [32]. This periodic flooding can produce relatively long-lived early seral communities conducive to the growth and spread of blackberries. The Himalayan blackberry is one of the few woody plants pioneering certain intertidal zones of the lower Sacramento River [32]. Little is known about the successional status of the Himalayan blackberry in its native Europe. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : The Himalayan blackberry generally flowers from June to August [3,13]. Fruit ripens in August and September [3], with seed dispersal in the fall.

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Rubus discolor | Himalayan Blackberry
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Blackberries are typically observed in greatest abundance following fire or other types of disturbance. The Himalayan blackberry is well adapted to invade recently burned sites. Most blackberries sprout vigorously after fire [9]. Various regenerative structures located at or below the ground surface enable this shrub to sprout, even when aboveground foliage is totally consumed by fire. Sprouting through rooting stem nodes [32] is also likely if even portions of the aboveground stem remain undamaged. Most blackberries store seed in seedbanks. Plants can readily reoccupy recently burned sites through seed protected from the direct effects of fire by overlying soil or duff. Seed generally remains viable for long periods of time [2] and germinates in abundance after disturbance. The relatively large, sweet, succulent fruits of blackberries amply reward animal dispersers [16], and some postfire reestablishment through seed transported from off-site is also probable. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil Geophyte, growing points deep in soil Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community) Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Rubus discolor | Himalayan Blackberry
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Although Himalayan blackberry plants may be top-killed, actual mortality appears to be uncommon because of the prolific sprouting ability of this shrub. Most Himalayan blackberry seed stored on-site in the soil or duff is probably unharmed by fire. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Vegetative response: The Himalayan blackberry is capable of rapid, extensive spread through trailing aboveground stems which root at the nodes [32]. Plants are presumably able to regenerate vegetatively and resume growth when portions of the aboveground stems remain undamaged. Most blackberries readily regenerate vegetatively from underground structures such as roots, rhizomes, or rootstocks when aboveground foliage is removed [11]. Regeneration through various underground structures, which are well protected from the direct effects of fire by overlying soil, is probable even when the aboveground vegetation is totally consumed by fire. Seedling establishment: Exposed mineral soil can provide a favorable seedbed, and extensive postfire establishment of on-site seed is commonly observed in many blackberries. Birds and mammals may also transport some viable seed to the site. Rate of postfire recovery: The weedy Himalayan blackberry is described as a "serious pest" which is well represented on many types of disturbed sites [7,14]. Its role as a vigorous invader on waste ground suggests the potential for rapid postfire recovery in many areas. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Wildlife species which consume large amounts of blackberries are often benefited by fire [20].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Rubus discolor | Himalayan Blackberry
REFERENCES : 1. Barber, William Hollis, Jr. 1976. An autecological study of salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis, Pursh) in western Washington. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. 154 p. Thesis. [7189] 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 3. Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Rubus L. blackberry, raspberry. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 738-743. [7743] 4. Burrill, Larry C.; Braunworth, William S., Jr.; William, Ray D.; [and others], compilers. 1989. Pacific Northwest weed control handbook. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Extension Service, Agricultural Communications. 276 p. [6235] 5. Carson, Robert G.; Edgerton, Paul J. 1989. Creating riparian wildlife habitat along a Columbia River impoundment in northcentral Washington. In: Wallace, Arthur; McArthur, E. Durant; Haferkamp, Marshall R., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on shrub ecophysiology and biotechnology; 1987 June 30 - July 2; Logan, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-256. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 64-69. [5924] 6. Crane, M. B. 1940. Reproductive versatility in Rubus. I. Morphology and inheritance. Journal of Genetics. 40: 109-118. [8443] 7. Dale, Nancy. 1986. Flowering plants: The Santa Monica Mountains, coastal and chaparral regions of southern California. Santa Barbara, CA: Capra Press. In coooperation with: The California Native Plant Society. 239 p. [7605] 8. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 9. Ferguson, Robert B. 1983. Use of rosaceous shrubs for wildland plantings in the Intermountain West. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy, compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and wildlife habitats; Proceedings of symposia; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 136-149. [915] 10. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 11. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603] 12. Harper, James A. 1962. Daytime feeding habits of Roosevelt elk on Boyes Prairie, California. Journal of Wildlife Management. 26(1): 97-100. [8876] 13. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1961. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 3: Saxifragaceae to Ericaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 614 p. [1167] 14. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168] 15. Hogdon, A. R.; Steele, Frederic. 1966. Rubus subgenus Eubatus in New England: a conspectus. Rhodora. 68: 474-513. [6213] 16. Janzen, Daniel H. 1984. Dispersal of small seeds by big herbivores: foliage is the fruit. American Naturalist. 123(3): 338-353. [6901] 17. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 18. Katibah, Edwin F.; Nedeff, Nicole E.; Dummer, Kevin J. 1984. Summary of riparian vegetation aerial and linear extent measurements from the Central Valley Riparian Mapping Project. In: Warner, Richard E.; Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology, conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of the conference; 1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press: 46-50. [5824] 19. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563] 20. Kramp, Betty A.; Patton, David R.; Brady, Ward W. 1983. The effects of fire on wildlife habitat and species. RUN WILD: Wildlife/ habitat relationships. Albuerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region, Wildlife Unit Technical Report. 29 p. [152] 21. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 22. Laymon, Stephen A. 1984. Photodocumentation of vegetation and landform change on a riparian site, 1880-1980: Dog Island, Red Bluff, California. In: Warner, Richard E.; Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology, conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of a conference; 1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press: 150-159. [5833] 23. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 24. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155] 25. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924] 26. Neiland, Bonita J. 1958. Forest and adjacent burn in the Tillamook Burn area of northwestern Oregon. Ecology. 39(4): 660-671. [8879] 27. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 28. Roberts, Warren G.; Howe, J. Greg; Major, Jack. 1980. A survey of riparian forest flora and fauna in California. In: Sands, Anne, editor. Riparian forests in California: Their ecology and conservation: Symposium proceedings. Davis, CA: University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences: 3-19. [5271] 29. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants of the U.S.--alphabetical listing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 954 p. [23104] 30. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 31. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 32. Willoughby, John W.; Davilla, William. 1984. Plant species composition and life form spectra of tidal streambanks and adjacent riparian woodlands along the lower Sacramento River. In: Warner, Richard E.; Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology, conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of a conference; 1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press: 642-651. [5866] 33. Core, Earl L. 1974. Brambles. In: Gill, John D.; Healy, William M., compilers. Shrubs and vines for Northeastern wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-9. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 16-19. [8923] 34. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 35. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [n.d.]. NP Flora [Data base]. Davis, CA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [23119]

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