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SPECIES: Salix serissima | Fall Willow
ABBREVIATION : SALSER SYNONYMS : Salix arguta Anderss. var. alpigena Anderss. Salix lucida Muhl. var. serissima Bailey SCS PLANT CODE : SASE2 COMMON NAMES : fall willow autumn willow TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of fall willow is Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : Fall willow is rare in Glacier National Park and Montana where it is at the edge of its range [10]. Disjunct populations occur in South Dakota. Fall willow's South Dakota Heritage Status code is A(d), i.e., critically rare--in danger of extirpation in the state; very rare or habitat seriously threatened (disjunct) [18]. COMPILED BY AND DATE : Tara Y. Williams/October 1990 LAST REVISED BY AND DATE : NO-ENTRY AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Williams, Tara Y. 1990. Salix serissima. In: Remainder of Citation


SPECIES: Salix serissima | Fall Willow
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Fall willow is distributed in boreal North America south to New Jersey, Minnesota, Montana, and Colorado. It is found from eastern Canada to Alberta [6,9]. Occurrence in Glacier National Park: along Swiftcurrent Creek below Swiftcurrent Lake and below Lake McDermott [9,14]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES19 Aspen - birch FRES28 Western hardwoods STATES : CO CT MA MN MT NJ PA VT WI WY AB LB MB NB NF NS NT ON PQ SK YT ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS : APIS DEWA GLAC ROMO VOYA BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 11 Southern Rocky Mountains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K025 Alder - ash forest K106 Northern hardwoods (seral stages) SAF COVER TYPES : 16 Aspen 217 Aspen SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Salix serissima | Fall Willow
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : NO-ENTRY IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : NO-ENTRY PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : Fall willow may cause hayfever [3]. MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : The fall willow population in Glacier National Park may have been destroyed by flooding associated with dam construction outside the park. The presence of fall willow in Glacier National Park should be verified [9].


SPECIES: Salix serissima | Fall Willow
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Fall willow is a native perennial shrub that grows 6 to 9 feet (2-3 m) tall. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Undisturbed State: Phanerophyte (nanophanerophyte) Burned or Clipped State: Cryptophyte (geophyte) REGENERATION PROCESSES : Fall willow reproduces sexually from seed. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Fall willow grows in cold, often calcareous bogs, limy swamps, boggy meadows, and along lakeshores and streambanks at low to mid elevations [6,9,13,14]. It grows under aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) forests with other willows (Salix spp.), rushes (Juncus spp.), and ash (Fraxinus spp.) [1,12]. It was reported at 9,000 feet (3,000 m) in Colorado [6] and at 5,300 feet (1,615 m) in Montana [3]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Fall willow was present in the understory of a 5-year-old, sandy, subirrigated, aspen-poplar stand [1]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Fall willow flowers in midsummer or later. It produces fruit in late summer or fall [14]. Others say it blooms with other willow species in May and June and produces fruit in September [9,13].


SPECIES: Salix serissima | Fall Willow
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : NO-ENTRY POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex surviving species; on-site surviving rhizomes survivor species; on-site surviving deep underground stems and rhizomes crown-stored residual colonizer; short-viability seed in on-site cones crown-stored residual colonizer; long-viability seed in on-site cones crown-site stored residual colonizer; probably fire-activated seed on-site in soil crown-site stored residual colonizer; fire-activated seed on-site in soil crown-stored residual colonizer; fire-activated seed on-site in soil off-site colonizer; seed tranported by wind; postfire years 1 and 2 off-site colonizer; seed transported by animals; postfire years 1 and 2 secondary colonizer; off-site seed transported to site after year 2


SPECIES: Salix serissima | Fall Willow
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : NO-ENTRY DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : NO-ENTRY DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : In an Alberta project that aimed to control willow species in the understory, burning resulted in 96 percent mortality of stems. The willows returned to preburn levels in 3 years. A combination of burning and spraying resulted in greater reduction [1].


SPECIES: Salix serissima | Fall Willow
REFERENCES : 1. Bailey, Arthur W.; Anderson, Howard G. 1979. Brush control on sandy rangelands in central Alberta. Journal of Range Management. 32(1): 29-32. [3387] 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 3. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 4. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 5. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 6. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851] 7. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 8. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 9. Lesica, Peter. 1984. Rare vascular plants of Glacier National Park, Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, Department of Botany. 27 p. [12049] 10. Lesica, P.; Moore, G.; Peterson, K. M.; Rumely, J. H. (Montana Rare Plant Project). 1984. Vascular plants of limited distribution in Montana. Monograph No. 2. Montana Academy of Sciences, Supplement to the Proceedings, Volume 43. Bozman, MT: Montana State University, Montana Academy of Sciences. 61 p. [11656] 11. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 12. Rudd, Velva E. 1951. Geographical affinities of the flora of North Dakota. American Midland Naturalist. 45(3): 722-739. [2040] 13. Voss, Edward G. 1972. Michigan flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and monocots. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 488 p. [11471] 14. Standley, Paul C. 1921. Flora of Glacier National Park, Montana. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium. Vol. 22, Part 5. Washington, DC: United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution: 235-438. [12318] 15. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472] 16. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 17. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 18. Houtcooper, Wayne C.; Ode, David J.; Pearson, John A.; Vandel, George M., III. 1985. Rare animals and plants of South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 17(3): 143-165. [1198]


Related categories for Species: Salix serissima | Fall Willow

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