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SPECIES: Sorbus sitchensis | Sitka Mountain-Ash
ABBREVIATION : SORSIT SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : SOSI COMMON NAMES : Sitka mountain-ash western mountain-ash Pacific mountain-ash TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of Sitka mountain-ash is Sorbus sitchensis Roemer [16,18,24,39]. A typical variety and S. sitchensis var. grayi (Wenzig) Hitchcock are recognized [16,20,37]. Sitka mountain-ash hybridizes with Greene mountain-ash (S. scopulina) [39]. LIFE FORM : Tree, Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY COMPILED BY AND DATE : Robin F. Matthews, October 1993 LAST REVISED BY AND DATE : NO-ENTRY AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Matthews, Robin F. 1993. Sorbus sitchensis. In: Remainder of Citation


SPECIES: Sorbus sitchensis | Sitka Mountain-Ash
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Sitka mountain-ash is distributed from Alaska south along the Pacific Coast and through the Cascade Range to northern California and east to northern Idaho and northwestern Montana [16,24,39]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES22 Western white pine FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce FRES25 Larch STATES : AK CA ID MT OR WA BC ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS : CRLA DENA GLBA GLAC LACL MORA NOCA OLYM WRST BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains 8 Northern Rocky Mountains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K001 Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest K002 Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest K003 Silver fir - Douglas-fir forest K004 Fir - hemlock forest K007 Red fir forest K012 Douglas-fir forest K013 Cedar - hemlock - pine forest K014 Grand fir - Douglas-fir forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest SAF COVER TYPES : 205 Mountain hemlock 206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir 207 Red fir 210 Interior Douglas-fir 211 White fir 212 Western larch 213 Grand fir 215 Western white pine 223 Sitka spruce 224 Western hemlock 225 Western hemlock - Sitka spruce 226 Coastal true fir - hemlock 227 Western redcedar - western hemlock 228 Western redcedar 229 Pacific Douglas-fir 230 Douglas-fir - western hemlock SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Sorbus sitchensis | Sitka Mountain-Ash
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Sitka mountain-ash has light-weight, fine-textured wood [39]. It has no commercial value [17]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Sitka mountain-ash berries remain on the trees until late winter, making them available as winter forage. They are important in the diet of many upland gamebirds, songbirds, and small mammals [14,26]. The twigs supply browse for deer and moose [14]. Roosevelt elk also utilize Sitka mountain-ash in the summer months [19]. Black bear and grizzly bear eat the berries, leaves, and stems [21,27]. PALATABILITY : Sitka mountain-ash provides fair browse for sheep and fair to poor browse for cattle [38]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : NO-ENTRY COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Sitka mountain-ash has been used for streambank rehabilitation in Oregon and Washington [25]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Sitka mountain-ash is cultivated as an ornamental [17,26,39]. MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Foliar glycophosphate and broadcast 2,4-D applications caused severe injury to Sitka mountain-ash in field experiments [28]. Sitka mountain-ash may produce allelopathic substances that inhibit Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings [30].


SPECIES: Sorbus sitchensis | Sitka Mountain-Ash
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Sitka mountain-ash is a native, deciduous shrub 4 to 8 feet (1.2-2.4 m) tall, or a small tree up to 20 feet (4.5-6.0 m) tall and 6 inches (15 cm) d.b.h. On rocky alpine sites at higher elevations Sitka mountain-ash is often only 1 to 2 feet (0.3-0.6 m) tall. Leaves are pinnately compound and are 4 to 8 inches (10-20 cm) long with 7 to 11 leaflets. Sitka mountain-ash bark is thin and smooth. Flowers are borne in terminal corymbs with 15 to 60 flowers per head. Fruits are small pommes [39]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sitka mountain-ash mainly propagates by seed [32,38]. Mountain-ashes (Sorbus spp.) begin producing seed at about 15 years of age and usually produce a good seed crop every year. Seeds are mainly dispersed by birds. Seedlings are hardy and are not very susceptible to insects or disease, but may be injured by deer browsing [14]. Cooper [7] reports that American mountain-ash (S. americana), a closely related species, sprouts from the stump when top-killed. Propagation: Cleaned seeds have been stored for 2 to 8 years without loss of viability. Seeds sown in the spring require 60 or more days of previous stratification at 32 to 41 degrees Fahrenheit (0-5 deg C) in moist sand, moss, soil, or other medium. Unstratified seed should be sown in the fall or early winter. Germination is slower and not as successful if seeds are not removed from the berries before sowing [14]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Sitka mountain-ash occurs in dry to moist, well-drained sandy loam or other soils [38]. In southern and southeastern Alaska, Sitka mountain-ash is an uncommon to rare forest tree, occurring from sea level to timberline along the coast [39]. In coastal British Columbia, Sitka mountain-ash is an indicator of moderately dry to fresh, nitrogen-poor soils. It is common but scattered in British Columbia, where it is found in montane to subalpine, open-canopy coniferous forests. Its occurrence there increases with increasing precipitation and elevation [22]. In the Pacific Northwest, it occurs in mid- to upper-elevation coniferous forests and forest openings, and is particularly widespread from 3,000 to 5,000 feet (900-1,515 m) on the western slope of the Cascade Range [35]. Sitka mountain-ash is found at elevations from 3,400 to 6,700 feet (1,030-2,030 m) in Montana [9]. In the Bitterroot Mountains of west-central Montana, it is most often found in moist, deep soils along creeks or streams [24]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Sitka mountain-ash is shade intolerant and persists in clearings [22]. It is present in many climax forests and plant associations [2,3,12,15,34,36]. Sitka mountain-ash may inhibit growth of other vegetation [8]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Sitka mountain-ash flowers from June to July. Fruits ripen from September to October and persist through late winter [14,39].


SPECIES: Sorbus sitchensis | Sitka Mountain-Ash
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : A closely related species, American mountain-ash, sprouts from the bole when top-killed by fire [7]. Sitka mountain-ash may have this ability as well, but Sitka mountain-ash sprouting has not been documented in the literature. Some areas in which Sitka mountain-ash occurs have long intervals between fires [2,29]. Cool, wet maritime forests may have fire return intervals of several hundred years or more [4]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community) Secondary colonizer - off-site seed


SPECIES: Sorbus sitchensis | Sitka Mountain-Ash
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Specific information on the immediate effect of fire on Sitka mountain-ash is not available in the literature. Since it is a small tree with thin bark, it may survive light-severity fire but is probably killed by severe fire. Mature mountain-ashes (Sorbus spp.) have been eliminated by fires at various locations throughout the United States and Canada [6]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Sitka mountain-alder was absent from burned sites but present on abjacent unburned sites 29 years following fire in alpine heath and krummholz communities in Washington [10]. Mountain-ash (Sorbus spp.) sprouts and seedlings appeared in the first and second postfire years after spring and summer wildfires and spring prescribed fires in Minnesota [1]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Sorbus sitchensis | Sitka Mountain-Ash
REFERENCES : 1. Ahlgren, Clifford E. 1959. Some effects of fire on forest reproduction in northeastern Minnesota. Journal of Forestry. 57: 194-200. [208] 2. Atzet, Thomas; McCrimmon, Lisa A. 1990. Preliminary plant associations of the southern Oregon Cascade Mountain Province. Grants Pass, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siskiyou National Forest. 330 p. [12977] 3. Atzet, Thomas; Wheeler, David L. 1984. Preliminary plant associations of the Siskiyou Mountain Province. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 278 p. [9351] 4. Barbour, Michael G.; Billings, William Dwight, eds. 1988. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. 434 p. [13876] 5. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 6. Cattelino, Peter J. 1980. A reference base for vegetative response and species reproductive strategies. Final Report. Supplement No. 10 to Master Memorandum between Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station and Gradient Modeling, Inc. Missoula, MT: Gradient Modeling, Inc. 30 p. [12085] 7. Cooper, William S. 1928. Seventeen years of successional change upon Isle Royale, Lake Superior. Ecology. 9(1): 1-5. [7297] 8. del Moral, Roger; Cates, Rex G. 1971. Allelopathic potential of the dominant vegetation of western Washington. Ecology. 52(6): 1030-1037. [4794] 9. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 10. Douglas, George W.; Ballard, T. M. 1971. Effects of fire on alpine plant communities in the North Cascades, Washington. Ecology. 52(6): 1058-1064. [6738] 11. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 12. Franklin, Jerry F.; Moir, William H.; Hemstrom, Miles A.; [and others]. 1988. The forest communities of Mount Rainier National Park. Scientific Monograph Series No 19. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 194 p. [12393] 13. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 14. Harris, A. S.; Stein, William I. 1974. Sorbus L. Mountain-ash. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 780-784. [7757] 15. Hemstrom, Miles A.; Emmingham, W. H.; Halverson, Nancy M.; [and others]. 1982. Plant association and management guide for the Pacific silver fir zone, Mt. Hood and Willamette National Forests. R6-Ecol 100-1982a. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 104 p. [5784] 16. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168] 17. Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native trees of Canada. 7th ed. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry. 380 p. [3375] 18. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403] 19. Jenkins, Kurt J.; Starkey, Edward E. 1991. Food habits of Roosevelt elk. Rangelands. 13(6): 261-265. [17351] 20. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 21. Kendall, Katherine C. 1986. Grizzly and black bear feeding ecology in Glacier National Park, Montana. Progress Report. West Glacier, Montana: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Glacier National Park Biosphere Preserve, Science Center. 42 p. [19361] 22. Klinka, K.; Krajina, V. J.; Ceska, A.; Scagel, A. M. 1989. Indicator plants of coastal British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press. 288 p. [10703] 23. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 24. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798] 25. Lines, Ivan L., Jr.; Carlson, Jack R.; Corthell, Robert A. 1979. Repairing flood-damaged streams in the Pacific Northwest. In: Johnson, R. Roy; McCormick, J. Frank, technical coordinators. Strategies for protection and management of floodplain wetlands & other riparian ecosystems: Proc. of the symposium; 1978 December 11-13; Callaway Gardens, GA. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-12. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 195-200. [4361] 26. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 500 p. [4021] 27. McCrory, Wayne; Herrero, Stephen; Whitfield, Phil. 1986. Using grizzly bear habitat information to reduce human-grizzly bear conflicts in Kokanee Glacier and Valhalla Provincial Parks, B. C. In: Contreras, Glen P.; Evans, Keith E., compilers. Proceedings--grizzly bear habitat symposium; 1985 April 30 - May 2; Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-207. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 24-30. [10809] 28. Otchere-Boateng, J.; Herring, L. J. 1990. Site preparation: chemical. In: Lavender, D. P.; Parish, R.; Johnson, C. M.; [and others], eds. Regenerating British Columbia's Forests. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press: 164-178. [10714] 29. Patten, Tom; Oliver, Mike. 1986. Fire management plan: Frank Church--River of No Return Wilderness. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Region; Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 154 p. [21208] 30. Payne, Lori. 1992. Forest allelopathy: a review of the literature. Women in Natural Resources. 13(3): 12-23. [20362] 31. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 32. Slagle, Kevin; Wilson, Mark Griswold. 1992. Revegetation efforts accompany campsite rehabilitation in a Pacific silver fir plant community. Restoration & Management Notes. 10(1): 82-83. [20624] 33. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 34. Topik, Christopher. 1989. Plant association and management guide for the grand fir zone, Gifford Pinchot National Forest. R6-Ecol-TP-006-88. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 110 p. [11361] 35. Topik, Christopher; Hemstrom, Miles A., compilers. 1982. Guide to common forest-zone plants: Willamette, Mt. Hood, and Siuslaw National Forests. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 95 p. [3234] 36. 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