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Introductory

SPECIES: Yucca brevifolia | Joshua Tree
ABBREVIATION : YUCBRE SYNONYMS : Yucca brevifolia var. wolfei Jones Yucca draconis var. arborescens Torr. Yucca arborescens (Torr.) Trel. SCS PLANT CODE : YUBR COMMON NAMES : Joshua tree Joshua-tree yucca tree yucca yucca-palm TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for Joshua tree is Yucca brevifolia Engelm. The Yucca genus is both variable and unstable [44]. Natural hybridization is common, and numerous intermediate forms occur [43]. This genus has received only limited attention [10], and many taxonomic questions persist. Currently recognized varieties of Joshua tree are as follows [28]: Yucca brevifolia var. brevifolia Yucca brevifolia var. jaegeriana McKelvey Yucca brevifolia var. herbertii (J. M. Weber) Munz Webber [43] first delineated the form herbertii on the basis of morphological differences. Munz [28] found these differences to be significant enough to distinguish this entity as a variety, var. herbertii (J. M. Webber) Munz. Today, however, several researchers question all of the varieties named by McKelvey [26], Munz [28], Webber [43], and others. Cronquist and others [10] found little evidence to delineate any varieties. This controversy points out the need for additional research on this complex but fascinating group. LIFE FORM : Tree FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY COMPILED BY AND DATE : D. Tirmenstein, March 1989. LAST REVISED BY AND DATE : NO-ENTRY AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Tirmenstein, D. 1989. Yucca brevifolia. In: Remainder of Citation

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Yucca brevifolia | Joshua Tree
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Joshua tree is one of the most characteristic plants of the Mohave Desert [37] and extends southward to the Mohave-Sonoran Desert ecotone [3]. This species grows from southern California, Mexico, and western Arizona eastward into southern Nevada and southwestern Utah [23,46]. It reaches its greatest abundance in the vicinity of Joshua Tree National Monument, California [21]. Var. jaegeriana grows primarily in the eastern portion of the Mohave; var. herbertii is restricted to parts of the western Mohave Desert in California [25,28]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES30 Desert shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper FRES40 Desert grasslands STATES : AZ CA NV UT MEXICO ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS : DEVA GRCA JOTR LAME BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 3 Southern Pacific Border 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 12 Colorado Plateau KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland K039 Blackbrush K041 Creosotebush SAF COVER TYPES : 239 Pinyon - juniper SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Joshua tree is a climax dominant in unique woodlands of the Mohave Desert. It also occurs with gramas (Bouteloua spp.) and galletas (Hilaria spp.) in Joshua tree grasslands of the eastern Mohave [17], and codominates in desert shrub communities with creosotebush (Larrea tridentata), saltbush (Atriplex spp.), and bladder sage (Salazaria mexicana) [29]. Joshua tree is listed as an indicator in the following community type classifications (cts): Area Classification Authority CA: San Bernardino chaparral, woodland, Mts. & forest cts Minnich 1976 Mohave Desert general veg. cts Thorne and others 1981 Mohave Desert desert scrub cts Vasek and Barbour 1977 San Gabriel general veg. cts Hanes 1976 ----- general veg. cts Thorne 1976 s CA desert cts Johnson 1976 CA, NV: Mohave Desert desert scrub cts Brown 1982

VALUE AND USE

SPECIES: Yucca brevifolia | Joshua Tree
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : Joshua tree wood is light, pliable, porous, durable, and has a unique and attractive grain [26]. It is used in novelty products such as picture frames, book covers, postcards, napkin rings, and boxes [26,43]. Joshua tree veneer, which is available in parts of southern California, is attractive, provides good insulation, and improves acoustics [43]. IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Joshua tree provides food and shelter for many animals of the Mohave Desert. The foliage provides some browse for bighorn sheep [35] and other wild ungulates. The Mexican woodrat, rabbits, and other small mammals consume the young succulent leaves [25,26,43], as do domestic sheep and goats in drier parts of the Mohave. Deer, squirrels, and small birds consume the young blossoms and fruit [20,21]. Cattle, burros, and wild horses also eat the fruit [10]. The antelope ground squirrel, and presumably other rodents, cache dried Joshua tree seed for winter use [20]. PALATABILITY : The sweet blossoms and fleshy fruits of the Joshua tree are highly palatable [20,21]. Dried seeds are particularly relished by the antelope ground squirrel in winter [20,21]. Leaves are most palatable to wild ungulates, small mammals, and domestic livestock when young and succulent [25,26]. The palatability of Joshua tree to livestock and wildlife in Utah has been rated as follows [11]: UT Cattle poor Sheep poor Horses poor Pronghorn poor Elk poor Mule deer poor Small mammals poor Upland game birds ---- NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Joshua tree is rated as poor in both energy and protein value [11]. Specific food values of various parts of Joshua tree (var. jaegeriana) are as follows [43]: oil water n-free crude fat fiber ash extract protein see 34.4% 5.9% 34.8% 10.2% 3.2% 9.9% 1.6% pods ---- 7.6% 60.0% 6.7% 2.0% 16.8% 6.9% seed meal ---- 9% 53% 15.5% 5% ---- 2.5% COVER VALUE : Joshua tree provides much-needed shade and cover for numerous desert-dwelling animals. Arborescent plants are rare in the Mohave Desert, and the branches of this tall yucca provide perching sites for predatory birds such as the sparrow hawk and loggerhead shrike [21]. This tall, shaggy, irregularly shaped yucca lends itself to favorable nesting or resting sites for many small birds and reptiles. Studies have shown that at least 25 species of birds nest in the Joshua tree. Some, such as the Scott's oriole, nest in shady leaf clusters, while others, such as the flicker and ladder-backed woodpecker, excavate nest holes in the corky trunks [20,21]. The yucca night lizard usually exists in close proximity to Joshua trees, inhabiting dark rotting hollows where available [21] and feeding on the abundance of insects associated with this tree [25]. Woodrats frequently build nests in the fallen trunks of Joshua trees [25]. The Mexican woodrat often uses the leaves as nesting material [26]. Domestic livestock seek out shade provided by Joshua trees [16]. The degree to which Joshua tree provides environmental protection during one or more seasons for wildlife in Utah has been rated as follows [11]: UT Pronghorn poor Elk poor Mule deer poor Small mammals fair Small nongame birds fair Upland game birds good Waterfowl poor VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Joshua tree woodlands are extremely fragile and can take centuries to recover from disturbance [41]. Joshua tree can be used in rehabilitation, although its potential value for both long- and short-term revegetation is rated as low. It has moderate value for erosion control [11]. Seedlings can be transplanted onto disturbed sites, but it is is important not to overwater young plants [43]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Historical uses: Wood - Ancient Cliff Dwellers of the Southwest often incorporated Joshua tree beams into their living structures [43]. Early ranchers built fences from the cork trunks [20,21]. The pulp was made into fine paper and for a time a London newspaper was printed on newsprint made from Joshua tree pulp [26]. High processing and transportation costs eventually put an end to its use in the paper industry. Other - Native Americans used the rootlets to make a red dye, and made rope, sandals, mats, and baskets from fibers obtained from the leaves [20,21,25]. They roasted and ate the flower buds, and used the ground seeds to make meal and mush [25,26]. They produced an alcoholic beverage from the fermented buds and flowers [25]. Modern uses: The clear, tasteless, and nearly odorless oil obtained from seeds and pods, and sapogenins derived mainly from Joshua tree roots, may someday have commercial value [34,43]. Chemicals obtained from the Joshua tree have been used in the synthesis of vanillin, as a fertilizer, and as a carbon dioxide stabilizer used in controlling oil fires [43]. The Joshua tree's unique appearance makes it well suited for use as an ornamental [35]. It has been transplanted successfully outside of its natural range in Nevada and Utah [10]. MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Grazing: Many Joshua tree woodlands have been heavily grazed by livestock in the past. Grazing systems have little or no effect on improving range conditions because of the extreme aridity and harshness of these areas. Efforts to improve these ranges tend to be expensive and yield few beneficial results [15]. Biomass: Joshua biomass is difficult to determine accurately. Bostick and Tueller [5] reported that biomass ranged from 449 pounds per acre (504 kg/ha) on poor sites to 2,483 pounds per acre (2,790 kg/ha) on excellent sites; biomass averaged 1,369 pounds per acre (1,538 kg/ha). Damage: Extensive vandalism has occurred in many Joshua tree woodlands in California [43]. Larger trees have been burned or defaced, and many trees have been dug up for planting in urban or residential areas. Survival of trees removed in this manner is believed to be extremely rare.

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Yucca brevifolia | Joshua Tree
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Joshua tree is a large, erect, evergreen, arborescent monocot [10,26,34,43]. It is generally single-stemmed, but plants with two or three stems also occur [26,43]. Joshua tree is the largest nonriparian plant of the Mohave Desert, reaching heights of 16 to 49 feet (5-15 m); the huge reddish-brown to gray trunks can grow to 2 or 4 feet (0.6-1.2 m) in diameter [10,21,28,34]. Erratic branching generally begins 3 to 10 feet (1-3 m) above the ground [10,26] and is often caused by the yucca-boring weevil which destroys the growing tips [21]. Branches are erect, ascending or spreading, and form a dense, compact, rounded top [10,26]. The soft, corklike bark is rough and fissured [21,26]. The inflorescence is a crowded, brittle often glabrous panicle [26]. Globose flowers are greenish-white or gray and papery at maturity, with an odor described as "unpleasantly mushroom-like" [26,43]. The exact age of Joshua trees may be difficult to determine since annuanl rings are not produced [21]. The overall shape, however, can provide a general range. Juvenile Joshua trees are generally unbranched; middle-aged plants are forked and dense [26]. Older trees generally have a single stem and an open crown [26]. Varieties: Important differences in morphology and general growth form of varieties are as follows [28,33,43]: var. brevifolia - tall, stout stem, branches mostly 3 to 10 feet (1-3 m) above the ground. var. jaegeriana - smaller, 10 to 20 feet (3-6 m) tall, branches mostly 2.3 to 3.3 feet (7-10 dm) above ground, more compact. var. herbertii - many stems forming clumps up to 33 feet (10 m) in diameter, long rhizomes. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte Therophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Seed and seed dispersal: Seeds are contained in dry, spongy, indehiscent baccate fruits which average 3 inches (69 mm) in length [18,26,45]. Fruit first develops near the base of the inflorescence while the upper part is still in flower, and averages 25 to 40 per cluster. Annual fruit production varies greatly under natural conditions [26]. Generally, fruit is produced only in wetter years. On extremely harsh sites the Joshua tree flowers rarely, if at all [21]. Seeds are dispersed chiefly by wind and animals. Birds frequently open the fruit, exposing seeds for subsequent wind dispersal [26]. A number of desert rodents are known to cache Joshua tree seeds [21] and may also disperse seed. Fruit can persist on the tree, but usually disintegrates rapidly [26]. Pollination: One of the most interesting and well-studied aspects of yucca ecology centers around the symbiotic relationship between yuccas and their yucca moth pollinators. The Joshua tree relies solely on the yucca moth (Tegeticula synethetica) for pollination. Seed production is totally dependent on the availability of this pollinator, which in the larval stage, feeds on a small percentage of seeds (generally around 7%) [18]. In years of extremely low pollinator availablity, sexual reproduction may be very limited. Germination: Most yucca seeds germinate well when temperature and moisture conditions are favorable [19]. Laboratory experiments indicate good germination potential for Joshua tree seed, with viability approaching 96 percent [2]. Germination can begin within only 3 days if seed is soaked in water for 24 hours prior to planting [43]. Germination capacity may be severely reduced if seeds are subjected to high temperatures for even brief periods. Seedling establishment: Seedlings are uncommon on many harsh sites and even under laboratory conditions, only 24 percent of the seed actually produced viable seedlings [2]. Some researchers believe that sexual reproduction was much more important during more favorable climatic regimes, such as during the late Pleistocene, when summers were cooler and annual precipitation greater. Vegetative reproduction is now the most important mode of regeneration on many sites. Growth: Joshua tree grows an average of 3 inches (8 cm) annually for the first 10 years, then slows to 1.5 inches (1.3 cm) [21]. Vegetative regeneration: Joshua tree can sprout from the roots and from underground rhizomes [9,20,26,42]. Joshua tree rhizomes are fast-growing and numerous, and possess many scalelike leaves [43]. Specific characteristics differ by variety as follows [43]: var. herbertii - aerial stems connected by underground rhizomes 1.6-4.3 feet (0.2-1.3 m) in length which quickly grow to the surface. var. jaegeriana - rhizome development may be related to precipitation, and is believed to be stimulated by damage or injury to the stem. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Joshua tree grows on desert plains, alluvial fans, slopes, ridges, bajadas, mesas, or foothills [25,35,43]. Trees are often smaller and less common away from the base of desert mountain ranges [32]; the species is generally absent along the eastern edge of the Mohave Desert [7]. Associated species: The Joshua tree grows in open desert scrub, pinyon-juniper woodlands, and in desert grasslands [7,19,35]. Much variation has been reported on Joshua tree sites [30], but the following species are common associates: Nevada ephedra (Ephedra nevadensis), broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), creosote bush (Larrea spp.), bursage (Ambrosia dumsa), California buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum), Wright eriogonum (Eriogonum wrightii), desert sage (Salvia carnosa), catclaw acacia (Acacia greggii), and oaks (Quercus spp.) [7,15,16,30,32,34,43]. The following grasses frequently grow in the understory of Joshua tree woodlands: big galleta (Hilaria rigida), galleta (Hilaria jamesii), and bush muhly (Muhlenbergia porterii) [7,16]. Soils: Joshua trees have been reported on coarse sand, very fine silt, gravel, or sandy loam [8,20,43]. Many sites have bimodal soils with both coarse sands and fine silts [20]. Climate: Annual preciptation in many Joshua tree woodlands averages only 5 inches (13 cm) or less [32], although some sites receive as much as 8 to 10 (20-25 cm) inches [25]. Most precipitation occurs in winter or early spring with very little rainfall during the summer [32]. The distribution of this species is limited by low temperatures at higher elevations but is largely unaffected by high temperatures [34]. The Joshua tree can tolerate temperature extremes [6,34]. Evidence suggests that the Joshua tree was much more widely distributed in more humid prehistoric times [20]. During moister full-glacial periods of the late Pleistocene, the range of the Joshua tree extended to the valley floor of the Mohave Desert in areas where it is now restricted to uplands above 5,576 feet (1,700 m) [45]. Elevation: Elevational range of Joshua tree is 2,000 to 6,000 feet (610-1,829 m) in California [42], 2,000 to 6,900 feet (610-2,103 m) in Nevada [35], and 2,624 to 7,216 feet (800-2,200 m) in Utah [46]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : The slow-growing, long-lived Joshua tree is an important constituent of a number of climax desert communities. It is generally not well represented in most seral communities. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Joshua tree requires sufficient precipitation for flowering to occur. On some extremely harsh, arid sites, flowering rarely if ever occurs [20]. Start of flowering is probably controlled primarily by daylength [1]. Variation in flowering dates according to taxonomic variety and geographic location has been noted. Generalized flowering and fruiting dates are as follows [11,26,28,35]: Location Beginning of End of Variety Fruiting flowering flowering CA March May brevifolia ---- CA ---- ---- jaegeriana April NV April May ---- ---- UT March March ---- ---- Annual variation in floral development has been reported. The following data, collected over a 3-year period at a Nevada site, illustrate the range of annual phenological development in this species [1]: Stage 1971 1972 1973 bud March February March flower April March April fruit May-June May-June May-June Most annual vegetative growth of the Joshua tree occurs during a 5-month-long winter-spring growing season [34].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Yucca brevifolia | Joshua Tree
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Joshua tree exhibits numerous specialized adaptations to fire. Fire may be extremely important in both producing and maintaining large pure stands [42]. Fires may be frequent in some Joshua tree woodlands. In some areas, these tall, arborescent plants are frequently struck by lightning [R. Hunter, pers. comm. 1989]. Trees tend to become more fire resistant with age. The thick mat of dried leaves along the trunk decreases with age, and the flaky alligator-like bark of older trunks serves as a firebreak between surface fuels and the flammable shag on upper limbs [42]. Torching of the crowns is less likely in older stands. Here, terminal buds are protected by the height of older trees which may grow to 30 feet (9.2 m) or more, and by protective sheaths of thick, green leaves which surround the buds [42]. Joshua tree is generally capable of vigorous root and stump sprouting after fire [9,42]. Seed can remain viable in the soil for a number of years [43], and reestablishment through on-site or off-site seed is possible, particularly on more mesic sites or in favorable years. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex survivor species; on-site surviving rhizomes off-site colonizer; seed carried by wind; postfire years 1 and 2 off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Yucca brevifolia | Joshua Tree
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Plants are generally not killed by fire even when aboveground vegetation is consumed or badly damaged. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Joshua tree generally sprouts vigorously from the roots, stump, or rhizomes after foliage is removed or damaged by fire [9,42]. The numerous, fast-growing rhizomes [43] are well protected from heat by overlying layers of soil. Plants often appear more dense and shrubby after fire because of prolific sprouting [9]. Individual trees are often surrounded by a close group of sprouts [42]. Joshua trees in previously burned stands may form clumps up to 33 feet (10 m) in diameter [42]. Evidence suggests that Joshua tree seed can remain viable buried in the soil for a number of years [43]. Rodents are known to cache seed [21], and germination of seeds protected by soil in caches is possible. Reestablishment through on-site or off-site seed may occur on more mesic sites or in exceptional years. Postfire recovery time of the Joshua tree has not been well documented but probably varies with fire intensity and severity, season of burn, and site characteristics. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Yucca brevifolia | Joshua Tree
REFERENCES : 1. Ackerman, T. L.; Romney, E. M.; Wallace, A.; Kinnear, J. E. 1980. Phenology of desert shrubs in southern Nye County, Nevada. In: Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs No. 4. Nevada desert ecology. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University: 4-23. [3197] 2. Arnott, Howard J. 1962. The seed, germination, and seedling of yucca. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 96 p. [4317] 3. Asplund, Kenneth K.; Gooch, Michael T. 1988. Geomorphology and the distributional ecology of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) in a desert riparian canyon. Desert Plants. 9(1): 17-27. [563] 4. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 5. Bostick, Vernon; Tueller, Paul T. 1988. Joshua tree biomass. In: Proceedings, 32nd annual meeting of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science; 1988 April 16; Tucson, AZ. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. 23: 4-5. Abstract. [3568] 6. Brotherson, Jack D.; Masslich, William J. 1985. Vegetation patterns in relation to slope position in the Castle Cliffs area of southern Utah. Great Basin Naturalist. 45(3): 535-541. [528] 7. Brown, David E. 1982. Great Basin conifer woodland. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 52-57. [535] 8. Brown, David E. 1982. Semidesert grassland. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 123-131. [3603] 9. Conrad, C. Eugene. 1987. Common shrubs of chaparral and associated ecosystems of southern California. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-99. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 86 p. [4209] 10. Cronquist, Arthur; Holmgren, Arthur H.; Holmgren, Noel H.; [and others]. 1977. Intermountain flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. 6. The Monocotyledons. New York: Columbia University Press. 584 p. [719] 11. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 12. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 13. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 14. Hanes, Ted L. 1976. Vegetation types of the San Gabriel Mountians. In: Latting, June, ed. Symposium proceedings: plant communities of southern California; 1974 May 4; Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 2. Berkeley, CA: California Native Plant Society: 65-76. [4227] 15. Hughes, Lee E. 1982. A grazing system in the Mohave Desert. Rangelands. 4(6): 256-257. [4214] 16. Humphrey, Robert R. 1953. Forage production on Arizona ranges. III. Mohave County: A study in range condition. Bulletin 244. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 79 p. [4440] 17. Johnson, Hyrum B. 1976. Vegetation and plant communities of southern California deserts--a functional view. In: Latting, June, ed. Symposium proceedings: plant communities of southern California; 1974 May 4; Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 2. Berkeley, CA: California Native Plant Society: 125-164. [1278] 18. Keeley, Jon E.; Keeley, Sterling C.; Swift, Cheryl C.; Lee, Janet. 1984. Seed predation due to the yucca-moth symbiosis. American Midland Naturalist. 112(1): 187-191. [5808] 19. Keeley, Jon E.; Meyers, Adriene. 1985. Effect of heat on seed germination of southwestern Yucca species. Southwestern Naturalist. 30(2): 303-304. [5761] 20. Keith, Sandra L. 1982. A tree named Joshua. American Forests. 88(7): 40-42. [5802] 21. Keith, Sandra L. 1985. Forest fake. Environment Southwest. 508: 15-17. [3849] 22. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 23. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p. [2952] 24. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 25. Maxwell, C. G. 1971. The tree that is not a tree. American Forests. 77(3): 4-5. [5804] 26. McKelvey, Susan Delano. 1938. Yuccas of the southwestern United States: Part one. Jamaica Plains, MA: The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. 147 p. [3902] 27. Minnich, Richard A. 1976. Vegetation of the San Bernardino Mountains. In: Latting, June, ed. Symposium proceedings: plant communities of southern California; 1974 May 4; Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 2. Berkeley, CA: California Native Plant Society: 99-124. [4232] 28. Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1086 p. [4924] 29. Nichol, A. A. [revisions by Phillips, W. S.]. 1952. The natural vegetation of Arizona. Tech. Bull. 68 [revision]. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station: 189-230. [3928] 30. Phillips, Edwin A.; Page, Karen K.; Knapp, Sandra D. 1980. Vegetational characteristics of two stands of joshua tree woodland. Madrono. 27(1): 43-47. [5809] 31. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 32. Shreve, Forrest. 1942. The desert vegetation of North America. Botanical Review. 8(4): 195-246. [5051] 33. Simpson, Philip George. 1975. Anatomy and morphology of the Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia): an arborescent monocot. Santa Barbara, CA: University of California. 524 p. Dissertation. [6280] 34. Smith, Stanley D.; Hartsock, Terry, L.; Nobel, Park S. 1983. Ecophysiology of Yucca brevifolia, an arborescent monocot of the Mojave Desert. Oecologia. 60(1): 10-17. [5759] 35. Stark, N. 1966. Review of highway planting information appropriate to Nevada. Bull. No. B-7. Reno, NV: University of Nevada, College of Agriculture, Desert Research Institute. 209 p. In cooperation with: Nevada State Highway Department. [47] 36. Thorne, Robert F. 1976. The vascular plant communities of California. In: Latting, June, ed. Symposium proceedings: plant communities of southern California; 1974 May 4; Fullerton, CA. Special Publication No. 2. Berkeley, CA: California Native Plant Society: 1-31. [3289] 37. Thorne, Robert F. 1986. A historical sketch of the vegetation of the Mojave and Colorado Deserts of the American Southwest. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 73: 642-651. [3838] 38. Thorne, Robert F.; Prigge, Barry A.; Henrickson, James. 1981. A flora of the higher ranges and the Kelso Dunes of the eastern Mojave Desert in California. Aliso. 10(1): 71-186. [3767] 39. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 40. Vasek, Frank C.; Barbour, Michael G. 1977. Mojave desert scrub vegetation. In: Barbour, M. G.; Major, J., eds. Terestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 835-867. [3730] 41. Vasek, F. C.; Johnson, H. B.; Eslinger, D. H. 1975. Effects of pipeline construction on creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert. Madrono. 23(1): 1-13. [3429] 42. Vogl, Richard J. 1967. Fire adaptations of some southern California plants. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1967 November 9-10; Hoberg, California. No. 7. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 79-109. [6268] 43. Webber, John Milton. 1953. Yuccas of the Southwest. Agriculture Monograph No. 17. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 97 p. [2474] 44. Webber, John M. 1960. Hybridization and instability of Yucca. Madrono. 15: 187-192. [5764] 45. Wells, Philip V.; Woodcock, Deborah. 1985. Full-glacial vegetation of Death Valley, California: juniper woodland opening to Yucca semidesert. Madrono. 32(1): 11-23. [2493] 46. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 47. Yeaton, R. I.; Yeaton, R. W.; Waggoner, J. P., III; Horenstein, J. E. 1985. The ecology of Yucca (Agavaceae) over an environmental gradient in the Mohave Desert: distribution and interspecific interactions. Journal of Arid Environments. 8: 33-44. [281]

Index

Related categories for Species: Yucca brevifolia | Joshua Tree

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