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October 19, 2019  
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Mongolia: Geography

Geography Mongolia
Location:
Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
46 00 N, 105 00 E
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total: 1.565 million sq km
water: 9,600 sq km
land: 1,555,400 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:
total: 8,162 km
border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,485 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Terrain:
vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Natural resources:
oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate
Land use:
arable land: 0.84%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99.16% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
840 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud", which is harsh winter conditions
Environment - current issues:
limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

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Source: The CIA World Fact Book 2003

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