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Tunisia: Economy

Economy Tunisia
Economy - overview:
Tunisia has a diverse economy, with important agricultural, mining, energy, tourism, and manufacturing sectors. Governmental control of economic affairs while still heavy has gradually lessened over the past decade with increasing privatization, simplification of the tax structure, and a prudent approach to debt. Real growth averaged 5.4% in 1997-2001 but slowed to 1.9% in 2002 because of agricultural drought, slow investment, and lackluster tourism. Increased rainfall portends higher growth levels for 2003, but continued regional tension from the war in Iraq will most likely continue to suppress tourism earnings. Tunisia has agreed to gradually remove barriers to trade with the European Union over the next decade. Broader privatization, further liberalization of the investment code to increase foreign investment, improvements in government efficiency, and reduction of the trade deficit are among the challenges for the future.
GDP:
purchasing power parity - $67.13 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.8% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $6,800 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 32%
services: 56% (2003 est.)
Population below poverty line:
6% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 31.8% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
41.7 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.5% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
2.69 million
note: shortage of skilled labor (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
services 55%, industry 23%, agriculture 22% (1995 est.)
Unemployment rate:
15.4% (2002 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $5.2 billion
expenditures: $5.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (2002 est.)
Industries:
petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore), tourism, textiles, footwear, agribusiness, beverages
Industrial production growth rate:
3.5% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
10.48 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 99.5%
hydro: 0.5%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
9.748 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
1 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
72,580 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
87,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
417 million bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
2.25 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
3.83 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
1.58 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
77.16 billion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
olives, olive oil, grain, dairy products, tomatoes, citrus fruit, beef, sugar beets, dates, almonds
Exports:
$6.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
textiles, mechanical goods, phosphates and chemicals, agricultural products, hydrocarbons
Exports - partners:
France 31.3%, Italy 21.6%, Germany 11.5%, Spain 4.8%, Libya 4.7%, Belgium 4.3% (2002)
Imports:
$8.7 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Imports - commodities:
textiles, machinery and equipment, hydrocarbons, chemicals, food
Imports - partners:
France 25.6%, Italy 19.5%, Germany 8.9%, Spain 5% (2002)
Debt - external:
$13.6 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$222.7 million (2000)
Currency:
Tunisian dinar (TND)
Currency code:
TND
Exchange rates:
Tunisian dinars per US dollar - 1.42 (2002), 1.44 (2001), 1.37 (2000), 1.19 (1999), 1.14 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

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Source: The CIA World Fact Book 2003

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