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Introductory

SPECIES: Erodium cicutarium | Cutleaf Filaree
ABBREVIATION : EROCIC SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : ERCI6 COMMON NAMES : cutleaf filaree purple filaree redstem filaree filaree alfileria pinclover pingrass cranesbill heronbill storksbill TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of cutleaf filaree is Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her. [24,35,49]. There are no recognized subspecies, varieties, or forms. LIFE FORM : Forb FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY COMPILED BY AND DATE : Janet L. Howard, April 1992 LAST REVISED BY AND DATE : NO-ENTRY AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Howard, Janet L. 1992. Erodium cicutarium. In: Remainder of Citation

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Erodium cicutarium | Cutleaf Filaree
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Cutleaf filaree is distributed worldwide at latitudes below 70 degrees north and south. It occurs in Eurasia, North America, South America, central and southern Africa, New Zealand, Australia, and Tasmania [21]. In North America, cutleaf filaree is distributed across Canada and south to Baja California, Mexico [21,33]. It is currently found in all states except Florida and Louisiana. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES19 Aspen - birch FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES27 Redwood FRES28 Western hardwoods FRES29 Sagebrush FRES30 Desert shrub FRES31 Shinnery FRES32 Texas savanna FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper FRES36 Mountain grasslands FRES38 Plains grasslands FRES39 Prairie FRES40 Desert grasslands FRES42 Annual grasslands STATES : AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY AB BC LB MB NB NF NT NS ON PE PQ SK YT MEXICO ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS : ANTI ARCH ASIS BIHO BICA CACH CANY CARE CACA CHCU CHIS CHIR COLM CODA CRLA DEVA DEWA FIIS FOBO FOBU GATE GLAC GLCA GRCA GRTE GUMO HALE HAVO JODA JOTR KICA LAME LAVO LABE MEVE MOCA NABR NOCA OLYM ORPI PEFO PINN PORE REDW RICH ROMO SAGU SAJH SAMO SEQU SHEN SLBE SUCR TICA WACA WHIS YELL YOSE ZION BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 3 Southern Pacific Border 4 Sierra Mountains 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 14 Great Plains 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : Found in most Kuchler Plant Associations SAF COVER TYPES : Found in most SAF Cover Types SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Cutleaf filaree occupies a variety of habitats, from desert to riparian [23,25]. In riparian communities, it indicates recent or frequent disturbances [29]. The largest North American cutleaf filaree populations occur in California, where annual grasslands have replaced historical perennial grasslands [20,47]. Cutleaf filaree has been listed as a dominant community type (cts) in the following published classification: Area Classification Authority CA: Central Valley annual grassland cts Heady 1977

VALUE AND USE

SPECIES: Erodium cicutarium | Cutleaf Filaree
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : NO-ENTRY IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Cutleaf filaree provides seasonal forage for rodents, desert tortoise, big game animals, and livestock [4,5,32,24,51]. The seeds are eaten by upland game birds, songbirds, and rodents [14,30,39]. PALATABILITY : The relish and degree of use shown by livestock and wildlife species for cutleaf filaree in California and Utah is rated as follows [14,42,51]: CA UT Cattle good fair Sheep good good Horses ---- fair Pronghorn ---- good Elk ---- good Mule deer good good Small mammals good fair Small nongame birds ---- fair Waterfowl ---- poor Cutleaf filaree seeds are highly palatable to rodents [30]. NUTRITIONAL VALUE : The food value of flowering cutleaf filaree in central Arizona is as follows [46]: Percent Composition protein 17.10 fiber 17.80 calcium 2.54 phosphorus 0.51 potassium 3.56 The digestability of cutleaf filaree for several animal species is rated as follows [36]: Percent Digestability white-tailed deer 40.0 cattle 12.4 domestic goats 12.5 horses 12.0 domestic rabbits 11.9 domestic sheep 12.9 The seeds provide 5,505 calories per gram, or 8.92 calories per seed [40]. COVER VALUE : Cutleaf filaree generally provides poor cover [14]. One ecotype in Glenville, California, forms basal rosettes 16 inches (40 cm) in diameter, providing fair to good cover for small birds and mammals [28]. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : NO-ENTRY OTHER USES AND VALUES : The presence or absence of cutleaf filaree pollen in fossil records, sediment lakebeds, and artifacts has been used as a dating technique in paleobotany and archeology [12,16]. Cutleaf filaree was one of the first exotics to invade North America. It was appaerently introduced in California during the early 1700's by passing Spanish explorers [51]. MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Range: Cutleaf filaree is important forage for cattle, horses, and domestic sheep in California, Nevada, and Arizona [47]. Annual yields vary depending upon soil moisture. Talbot and others [43] found that cover of cutleaf filaree in a Tehema County, California range fluctuated from 70 percent in 1934 to 30 percent in 1935, a drought year. Other factors also affect the availability of cutleaf filaree. The plant is sensitive to airborne pollutants, especially sulfur dioxide, which causes extensive leaf and stem burn. Cutleaf filaree yields are reduced on some southern California and western Arizona ranges due to this problem [44]. Otherwise, cutleaf filaree has excellent range durability. The plant is resilient under heavy grazing pressure. When developing fruits are consumed by stock, the plant rapidly grows short, prostrate stems that produce new fruits. These new stems and fruits are relatively inaccessible to stock, especially horses and cattle [22]. When most of the cutleaf filaree within a range assumes this growth form, the range is overgrazed.

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Erodium cicutarium | Cutleaf Filaree
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Cutleaf filaree is an exotic forb that may be cool- or warm-season, depending on climate [35,46]. The leaves of young plants form a basal rosette. Older leaves grow up to 12 inches (30 cm) long, becoming decumbent to prostrate. The persistent styles of this plant are 1 to 2 inches (2.5-5 cm) long and coil together at maturity, enveloping the fruit at the base. The fruit is a sharp-pointed, narrow capsule. The slender taproot is about 3 inches (8 cm) long [16,37,47]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Therophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Cutleaf filaree reproduces sexually [35,47]. Germination is triggered by seasonal rains and soil temperatures that range between approximately 69 degrees Fahrenreit (21 deg C) during the day to 40 degrees Fahrenreit (4 deg C) at night [23]. Light rains result in lower germination rates than heavier rains [5]. When moist, the coiled styles enveloping the seed expand, uncoil, and drive the arrow-shaped fruit into the ground [16]. Seed can be driven as deep as 1 inch (2.5 cm), although seed buried less deeply is more likely to germinate [52]. Young and others [52] report an average germination success rate of 14 percent. Plants are sexually mature 2 to 4 months following germination [19]. Seed either falls beneath the parent plant or is disseminated by animals. Rodents frequently bury cutleaf filaree seed in a food cache where uncomsumed seed later germinates [30]. Seed also catches on animal fur and is disseminated in that manner [16]. Seeds of Erodium spp. can remain viable for many years, and form extensive seed banks [9]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Cutleaf filaree occupies a variety of different sites. Site characteristics are as follows: Soil: Cutleaf filaree grows in well-drained, clayey, loamy, or sandy soil. Variations in soil pH have been reported from moderately acid in Tehema County, California to moderately alkaline in the Great Basin area of central Utah [5,7]. Climate: Native to the Mediterranean area, cutleaf filaree flourishes in the semiarid climate of the Southwest and the Mediterranean climate of California [47]. It will tolerate a broad range of climates, however, including the tropical climate of Hawaii and the cold, rainy climate of the Pacific Northwest. Cutleaf filaree can grow in areas that experience harsh, snowy winters because its short growing period allows it to complete its life cycle before the onset of freezing weather [18,21]. Elevation: Cutleaf filaree occurs below 7,000 feet (2,134 m) [26]. Associated species: The associated species of cutleaf filaree are too numerous to list because of its global distribution. Since cutleaf filaree is mainly of intrest as a range plant, the associated range species of cutleaf filaree in several western states are listed as follows: Arizona: Saltbush (Atriplex polycarpa and A. lentiformis), mustard (Cruciferae ssp.), foxtail chess (Bromus rubens), Mediterranean schismus (Schismum barbatus), canyon grape (Vitis arizonica), blue palo verde (Cercidium floridum) [8,48]. California: Slender oat (Avena barbata), ripgut brome (B. rigidus), littlehead clover (Trifolium microcephalum), early filaree (Erodium obtusiplicatum) [6,48]. Idaho: St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum), downy brome (B. tectorum), quake-grass (B. brizaeformis), foxtail fescue (Festuca megalura), western yarrow (Achillea millefolium), bigflower agosersis (Agosersis grandiflora), spur lupine (Lupinus laziflorus), autumn willow-weed (Epilobium paniculatum) [43,48]. Nevada: Turpentine broom (Thamnosma montana), desert bitterbrush (Purshia glandulosa), blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), foxtail chess, California buckwheat (Eriogonum fasciculatum), desert needlegrass (Stipa speciosa) [1,48]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Obligate Initial Community Species Cutleaf filaree is a pioneer on disturbed sites. Wagner and others [50] reported that cutleaf filaree seedlings were the first to emerge on lands strip-mined for coal in New Mexico. Cutleaf filaree may have been an initial colonizer in open areas of the Mojave Desert [51]. It is also a residual or a secondary colonizer, since seedlings can either establish from on-site seed or from seed carried in by animals [16]. In annual grassland communities, cutleaf filaree is an early- to mid-seral stage plant, being intolerant of the mulch layer that builds up in older communities [4]. Cutleaf filaree is replaced in annual grasslands by ripgut brome and slender wild oat. Cutleaf filaree will tolerate partial shade, but vigor is reduced [2]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Seasonal development of cutleaf filaree varies depending upon climate. Plant germinate in late fall in California, Nevada, and Arizona but not start until midsummer of the following year in cold climates [5]. Plants in warm climates grow vigorously until winter, when growth slows. Vigorous growth resumes in the spring. In cold climates, growth is continuous from spring or summer until plant death in early fall [47]. Gordon and Sampson [18] reported the following developmental data for cutleaf filaree in O'Neal, California: germination - November early leaf stage - December flowers in bloom - March seeds ripe - May seeds disseminated - June plant death - June

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Erodium cicutarium | Cutleaf Filaree
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Plant adaptations: Seed driven into the soil by the styles is usually protected from fire [52]. Fire ecology: The prostrate stems of cutleaf filaree aid in spreading groundfire. Dead plants contribute to fuel loads. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community) Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Erodium cicutarium | Cutleaf Filaree
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Moderate fire kills mature plants [20]. Grass fires are typically light to moderate, and very young seedlings can survive fires of that severity. Dennis [13] found that newly germinated cutleaf filaree seedlings just beneath the litter layer were not harmed by a moderate grass fire in Mendocino National Forest, California. Cutleaf filaree seed in the litter layer remains viable following light fire, and seed just under the litter layer remains viable following moderate fire. Severe fire will kill seed unless it is buried 0.5 inch (1.25 cm) or more deep [41,53]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : During the first postfire growing season, density of cutleaf filaree is reduced, but biomass increases [11]. Seed production is highest at postfire year 1, with cutleaf filaree populations peaking at postfire year 2. Callison [10] reported cutleaf filaree as providing an absolute cover value of 0.2 percent in an unburned area in the Beaver Dam Mountains of southwestern Utah. Following a prescribed burn, the cover value was 11.1 percent in the first postfire growing season, and 11.5 percent in the second. Cover value declined from postfire year 3 and after. By postfire year 12, cutleaf filaree was no longer visible in the plant community. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Range: Frequent prescribed burning favors cutleaf filaree and other forbs over annual grasses [5,20]. This is desirable when the climax grass provides poor forage, such as ripgut brome. Grassland fire typically destroys very few seeds or other organic matter in the soil [20]. It does destroy the overlying mulch layer that inhibits germination of cutleaf filaree seeds [5,19].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Erodium cicutarium | Cutleaf Filaree
REFERENCES : 1. Bates, Patricia A. 1983. Prescribed burning blackbrush for deer habitat improvement. Cal-Neva Wildlife Transactions. [Volume unknown]: 174-182. [4458] 2. Bentley, J. R.; Talbot, M. W. 1948. Annual-plant vegetation of the California foothills as related to range management. Ecology. 29: 72-79. [194] 3. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 4. Biswell, H. H. 1956. Ecology of California grasslands. Journal of Forestry. 9: 19-24. [11182] 5. Biswell, H. H.; Gilman, J. H. 1961. Brush management in relation to fire and other environmental factors on the Tehama deer winter range. California Fish and Game. 47(4): 357-389. [6275] 6. Borchert, Mark I.; Davis, Frank W.; Michaelson, Joel; Oyler, Lynn Dee. 1989. Intractions of factors affectting seedling recruitment of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) in California. Ecology. 70(2): 389-404. [6626] 7. Brotherson, J. D.; Price, K. P.; O'Rourke, L. 1987. Age in relationship to stem circumference and stem diameter in cliffrose (Cowania mexicana var. stansburiana) in central Utah. Great Basin Naturalist. 47(2): 334-338. [527] 8. Brown, David E.; Lowe, Charles H.; Hausler, Janet F. 1977. Southwestern riparian communities: their biotic importance and management in Arizona. In: Johnson, R. Roy; Jones, Dale A., tech. coords. Importance, preservation and management of riparian habitat: a symposium: Proceedings; 1977 July 9; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-43. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment 201-211. [5348] 9. Burgess, Tony L.; Bowers, Janice E.; Turner, Raymond M. 1991. Exotic plants at the Desert Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona. Madrono. 38(2): 96-114. [15362] 10. Callison, Jim; Brotherson, Jack D.; Bowns, James E. 1985. The effects of fire on the blackbrush [Coleogyne ramosissima] community of southwestern Utah. Journal of Range Management. 38(6): 535-538. [593] 11. Cave, George Harold, III. 1982. Ecological effects of fire in the upper Sonoran Desert. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University. 124 p. Thesis. [12295] 12. Davis, Owen K. 1987. Palynological evidence for historic juniper invasion in central Arizona: a late-quaternary perspective. In: Everett, Richard L., compiler. Proceedings--pinyon-juniper conference; 1986 January 13-16; Reno, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-215. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 120-124. [4820] 13. Dennis, Mike. 1981. Periodic burning enhances utilization of grass type conversions. Rangelands. 3(5): 205-207. [5603] 14. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 15. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 16. Felger, Richard S. 1990. Non-native plants of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona. Tech. Rep. No. 31. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, School of Renewable Natural Resources, Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. 93 p. [14916] 17. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 18. Gordon, Aaron; Sampson, Arthur W. 1939. Composition of common California foothill plants as a factor in range management. Bull. 627. Berkeley, CA: University of California, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station. 95 p. [3864] 19. Griffin, James R. 1974. Notes on environment, vegetation and flora: Hastings Natural History Reservation. Memo Report. On file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 90 p. [10531] 20. Heady, Harold F. 1977. Valley grassland. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley and Sons: 491-514. [7215] 21. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403] 22. Humphrey, R. R. 1950. Arizona range resources. II. Yavapai County. Bull. 229. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station. 55 p. [5088] 23. Juhren, Marcella; Went, F. W.; Phillips, Edwin. 1956. Ecology of desert plants. 4. Combined field and laboratory work on germination of annuals in the Joshua Tree National Monument, California. Ecology. 37(2): 318-330. [12975] 24. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 25. Kauffman, J. Boone; Krueger, W. C.; Vavra, M. 1983. Effects of late season cattle grazing on riparian plant communities. Journal of Range Management. 36(6): 685-691. [16965] 26. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563] 27. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 28. Lawrence, George E. 1966. Ecology of vertebrate animals in relation to chaparral fire in the Sierra Nevada foothills. Ecology. 47(2): 278-291. [147] 29. Lisle, Thomas E. 1989. Channel-dynamic control on the establishment of riparian trees after large floods in northwestern California. In: Abell, Dana L., technical coordinator. Proceedings of the California riparian systems conference: Protection, management, and restoration for the 1990's; 1988 September 22-24; Davis, CA. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-110. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station: 9-13. [13508] 30. Longland, William S. 1987. Seed and seed patch use by three heteromyid rodent species. In: Frasier, Gary W.; Evans, Raymond A., eds. Proceedings of symposium: "Seed and seedbed ecology of rangeland plants"; 1987 April 21-23; Tucson, AZ. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service: 122-130. [15298] 31. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 32. Meyer, Michael W.; Karasov, William H. 1989. Antiherbivore chemistry of Larrea tridentata: effects on woodrat (Neotoma lepida) feeding and nutrition. Ecology. 70(4): 953-961. [7979] 33. Minnich, Richard A. 1983. Fire mosaics in southern California and northern Baja California. Science. 219: 1287-1294. [4631] 34. Mower, Kerry J.; Smith, H. Duane. 1989. Diet similarity between elk and deer in Utah. Great Basin Naturalist. 49(4): 552-555. [9929] 35. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155] 36. National Academy of Sciences. 1971. Atlas of nutritional data on United States and Canadian feeds. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 772 p. [1731] 37. Oregon State University, Cooperation Extension Service. 1963. Purple filare. Fact Sheet 45. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University, Cooperative Extension Service. 1 p. [6786] 38. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 39. Reichman, O. J. 1975. Relation of desert rodent diets to available resources. Journal of Mammalogy. 56(4): 731-751. [4572] 40. Reichman, O. J. 1976. Relationships between dimensions, weights, volumes, and calories of some Sonoran Desert seeds. Southwestern Naturalist. 20(4): 573-574. [12326] 41. Ryan, Kevin C.; Noste, Nonan V. 1985. Evaluating prescribed fires. In: Lotan, James E.; Kilgore, Bruce M.; Fischer, William C.; Mutch, Robert W., technical coordinators. Proceedings--symposium and workshop on wilderness fire; 1983 November 15-18; Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-182. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 230-238. [12456] 42. Smith, Arthur D. 1953. Consumption of native forage species by captive mule deer during summer. Journal of Range Management. 6: 30-37. [2161] 43. Talbot, M. W.; Biswell, H. H. 1942. The forage crop and its management. In: The San Joaquin Experimental Range. Bull. 663. Berkeley, CA: California Agricultural Experiment Station: 13-49. [12315] 44. Thompson, C. Ray; Kats, Gerrit; Lennox; R. W. 1980. Effects of SO2 and/or NO2 on native plants of the Mojave Desert and eastern Mojave-Colorado Desert. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. 30(12): 1304-1309. [4191] 45. Tisdale, E. W. 1976. Vegetational responses following biological control of Hypericum perforatum in Idaho. Northwest Science. 50(2): 61-75. [11392] 46. Urness, Philip J. 1973. Part II: Chemical analyses and in vitro digestibility of seasonal deer forages. In: Deer nutrition in Arizona chaparral and desert habitats. Special Report 3. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Game and Fish Department: 39-52. [93] 47. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1937. Range plant handbook. Washington, DC. 532 p. [2387] 48. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1981. National handbook of plant names. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 194 p. [2390] 49. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 50. Wagner, Warren L.; Martin, William C.; Aldon, Earl F. 1978. Natural succession on strip-mined lands in northwestern New Mexico. Reclamation Review. 1: 67-73. [2436] 51. Webb, Robert H.; Steiger, John W.; Newman, Evelyn B. 1988. The response of vegetation to disturbance in Death Valley National Monument, California. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1793. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. 69 p. [8915] 52. Young, J. A.; Evans, R. A.; Tueller, P. T. 1976. Great Basin plant communities--pristine and grazed. In: Elston, Robert, ed. Holocene environmental change in the Great Basin. Res. Pap. No. 6. Reno, NV: University of Nevada, Nevada Archeological Society: 187-216. [2676] 53. Zedler, Paul H.; Gautier, Clayton R.; McMaster, Gregory S. 1983. Vegetation change in response to extreme events: the effect of a short interval between fires in California chaparral and coastal scrub. Ecology. 64(4): 809-818. [4612]

Index

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