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Introductory

SPECIES: Ledum groenlandicum | Bog Labrador Tea
ABBREVIATION : LEDGRO SYNONYMS : Ledum pacificum Small Ledum palustre L. spp. groenlandicum SCS PLANT CODE : LEGR COMMON NAMES : bog labrador tea TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for bog Labrador tea is Ledum groenlandicum Oeder [3,44]. There are no recognized varieties, subspecies, or forms. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY COMPILED BY AND DATE : Milo Coladonato, May 1993. LAST REVISED BY AND DATE : NO-ENTRY AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Coladonato, Milo. 1993. Ledum groenlandicum. In: Remainder of Citation

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Ledum groenlandicum | Bog Labrador Tea
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Bog Labrador tea is distributed throughout Alaska, Canada, and Greenland. It occurs south through New England, the northern parts of the Lake States, northern Idaho, and western Washington and Oregon [6,8,20,22]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES10 White - red - jack pine FRES11 Spruce - fir FRES18 Maple - beech - birch FRES19 Aspen - birch FRES20 Douglas-fir FRES23 Fir - spruce FRES24 Hemlock - Sitka spruce FRES25 Larch FRES26 Lodgepole pine FRES44 Alpine STATES : CT ID ME MA MI MN MT NH NJ NY OH OR PA VT WA WI AB BC MB NF NT NS ON PE PQ SK YT ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS : ACAD APIS DEWA GLBA ISRO LACL MORA NOCA OLYM PIRO SLBE VOYA WRST YUCH BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 1 Northern Pacific Border 2 Cascade Mountains 8 Northern Rocky Mountains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K001 Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest K002 Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest K004 Fir - hemlock forest K008 Lodgepole pine - subalpine forest K015 Western spruce - fir forest K093 Great Lakes spruce - fir forest K094 Conifer bog K095 Great Lakes pine forest K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest K108 Northern hardwoods - spruce forest SAF COVER TYPES : 1 Jack pine 5 Balsam fir 12 Black spruce 13 Black spruce - tamarack 38 Tamarack 107 White spruce 201 White spruce 202 White spruce - paper birch 204 Black spruce 205 Mountain hemlock 206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir 218 Lodgepole pine 224 Western hemlock 225 Western hemlock - Sitka spruce 227 Western redcedar - western hemlock 228 Western redcedar 251 White spruce - aspen 253 Black spruce - white spruce 254 Black spruce - paper birch SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Bog Labrador tea is dominant or codominant in a variety of habitats within its range. It may occur as an understory component in open or closed forest habitats, primarily with black or white spruce (Picea mariana, P. glauca). Bog Labrador tea can also dominate or codominate in dwarf shrub types, bogs, muskegs, or open tundra [2,45]. Associated overstory and understory species of bog Labrador tea include low sweet blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia), bog birch (Betula glandulosa), bog blueberry (V. uliginosum), mountain cranberry (V. vitis-idaea), leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata), bog laurel (Kalmia polifolia), feathermoss (Pleurozium schreberi), lichens (Cladonia spp.), and sphagnum mosses (Sphagnum spp.) [1,13,17,23]. The following publications lists bog Labrador tea as a dominant or codominant species: Old-growth forests of the Canadian Rocky Mountain National Parks [1] Alpine and high subalpine plant communities of the North Cascade Range, Washington and British Columbia [12] Classification, description, and dynamics of plant communities after fire in the taiga of interior Alaska [17] Preliminary forest plant associations of the of the Stikine Area, Tongas National Forest [42] The Alaskan vegetation classification [45]

VALUE AND USE

SPECIES: Ledum groenlandicum | Bog Labrador Tea
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : NO-ENTRY IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Bog Labrador tea leaves and twigs are browsed by caribou and moose. In Ontario, caribou browse bog Labrador tea as supplemental winter browse [11]. In a study in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and the Northwest Territories, leaves and twigs of bog Labrador tea occrrred in 100 percent of caribou rumen samples [36]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Bog Labrador tea is rated low in digestibility for black-tailed deer [35]. COVER VALUE : Bog labrador tea presumably provides cover for a variety of small wildlife species. VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Bog labrador tea has potential for revegetating disturbed sites. It naturally recolonized local sites after powerline construction in the subartic bogs of northern and central Manitoba [38]. Bog labrador tea has also recolonized mined peatlands in the northeastern United States and may be of use in managing mined reclamation projects [15]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : The strongly aromatic leaves of bog Labrador tea can be used to make a palatable tea. As a folk medicine the tea was used externally for all kinds of skin problems. Taken internally, the tea was used to stimulate the nerves and stomach. A syrup made from the tea was sometimes used for coughs and hoarseness [26,32]. MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : On Willow Island, Alaska, white spruce stands were subjected to clearcut and shelterwood treatments. Second-year average percent cover and average percent frequency of bog Labrador tea were as follows [13]: shelterwood shelterwood control clearcut 14 m spacing 9 m spacing --------------------------------------------------------------- cover 0.2 trace 0.1 0.1 frequency 3.0 3 3.0 3.0

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Ledum groenlandicum | Bog Labrador Tea
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Bog Labrador tea is a low, native, evergreen shrub from 1 to 4 feet (0.3-1.2 m) high [6,8]. It is prostrate to erect in form and generally circular in outline. The leaves are 1 to 3 inches (2.5-7.5 cm) long. The flowers are borne on slender stalks in crowded clusters at the ends of the branches. The fruit is a many-seeded capsule [20,39]. Bog labrador tea roots in the organic layer and is rhizomatous. Rhizome depth can reach 6 to 20 inches (15-50 cm) [16,28]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte Chamaephyte Geophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Bog Labrador tea reproduces primarily vegetatively but can reproduce by seed [24]. It regenerates vegetatively through sprouting from rhizomes. Length and depth of rhizomes are greatly influenced by soil and moisture characteristics [27,46]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Bog Labrador tea grows on a broad range of sites from dry to wet, but it is most common on wetter sites with low subsurface water flow and low nutrients. It reaches its greatest cover in bogs [5,7,33]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Facultative Seral Species Bog Labrador tea is an important component of woodland understories through the early, midseral, and late stages of succession. It is often abundant in the shaded portions of the forest [4] It is also important in the early shrub stages of tundra succession [10,30,31]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Bog Labrador tea flowers from late May to early June. Fruits ripen from late August through late fall [8,26].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Ledum groenlandicum | Bog Labrador Tea
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Bog Labrador tea would likely survive fire because the rhizomes are found deep in the organic layer. It will sprout from rhizomes or the root crown following fire [28]. The bogs in which this species often occurs are usually too wet to burn except in years with exceptionally low rainfall. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Small shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Ledum groenlandicum | Bog Labrador Tea
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire generally top-kills bog Labrador tea. The underground stems are not usually damaged by fire [34,37,45]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Bog Labrador tea sprouts from rhizomes or the root crown following low- to moderate-severity fires. It is one of the first plants to recolonize burned bogs and grows rapidly following fire [18,21,23,43,46]. Chandler [9] reported that bog Labrador tea cover was 45 percent 5 years after fire. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : NO-ENTRY FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : NO-ENTRY

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Ledum groenlandicum | Bog Labrador Tea
REFERENCES : 1. Achuff, Peter L. 1989. Old-growth forests of the Canadian Rocky Mountain national parks. Natural Areas Journal. 9(1): 12-26. [7442] 2. Ahlgren, Clifford E. 1959. Some effects of fire on forest reproduction in northeastern Minnesota. Journal of Forestry. 57: 194-200. [208] 3. Anderson, J. P. 1959. Flora of Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 543 p. [9928] 4. Beeftink, H. H. 1951. Some observations on tamarack or eastern larch. Forestry Chronicle. 27: 38-39. [14276] 5. Brand, Gary J. 1985. Environmental indices for common Michigan trees and shrubs. Res. Pap. NC-261. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northcentral Forest Experiment Station. 5 p. [14465] 6. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914] 7. Carleton, T. J.; Maycock, P. F. 1980. Vegetation of the boreal forests south of James Bay: non-centered component analysis of the vascular flora. Ecology. 61(5): 1199-1212. [14734] 8. Chapman, William K.; Bessette, Alan E. 1990. Trees and shrubs of the Adirondacks. Utica, NY: North Country Books, Inc. 131 p. [12766] 9. Chandler, Craig; Cheney, Phillip; Thomas, Philip; [and others}. 1983. Fire in forestry: Vol. I. Forest fire behavior and effects. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 450 p. [12241] 10. Hironaka, Minoru. 1961. The relative rate of root development of cheatgrass and medusahead. Journal of Range Management. 14: 263-267. [1153] 11. Cringan, Alexander Thom. 1957. History, food habits and range requirements of the woodland caribou of continental North America. Transactions, North American Wildlife Conference. 22: 485-501. [15651] 12. Douglas, George W.; Bliss, L. C. 1977. Alpine and high subalpine plant communities of the North Cascades Range, Washington and British Columbia. Ecological Monographs. 47: 113-150. [9487] 13. Dyrness, C. T.; Viereck, L. A.; Foote, M. J.; Zasada, J. C. 1988. The effect on vegetation and soil temperature of logging flood-plain white spruce. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-392. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 45 p. [7471] 14. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 15. Famous, Norman C.; Spencer, M. 1989. Revegetation patterns in mined peatlands in central and eastern North America studied. Restoration and Management Notes. 7(2): 95-96. [10171] 16. Foote, M. Joan. 1983. Classification, description, and dynamics of plant communities after fire in the taiga of interior Alaska. Res. Pap. PNW-307. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 108 p. [7080] 18. Foster, David R. 1985. Vegetation development following fire in Picea mariana (black spruce) - Pleurozium forests of south-eastern Labrador, Canada. Journal of Ecology. 73: 517-534. [7222] 19. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 20. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur; Ownbey, Marion. 1959. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 4: Ericaceae through Campanulaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 510 p. [1170] 21. Holliday, N. J. 1984. Carabid beetles (Coleoptera:Carabidae) from a burned spruce forest (Picea spp.). Canadian Entomologist. 116: 919-922. [8337] 22. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403] 23. Johnson, E. A. 1981. Vegetation organization and dynamics of lichen woodland communities in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Ecology. 62(1): 200-215. [19244] 24. Krefting, Laurits W.; Ahlgren, Clifford E. 1974. Small mammals and vegetation changes after fire in a mixed conifer-hardwood forest. Ecology. 55: 1391-1398. [9874] 25. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 26. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19377] 27. Loomis, Robert M.; Roussopoulos, Peter J.; Blank, Richard W. 1979. Summer moisture contents of understory vegetation in northeastern Minnesota. Res. Pap. NC-179. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 7 p. [14330] 28. Parminter, John. 1983. Fire-ecological relationships for the biogeoclimatic zones and subzones of the Fort Nelson Timber Supply Area. In: Northern Fire Ecology Project: Fort Nelson Timber Supply Area. Victoria, BC: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests. 122 p. [1821] 29. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 30. Reichardt, P. B.; Bryant, J. P.; Anderson, B. J.; [and others]. 1990. Germacrone defends Labrador tea from browsing by snowshoe hares. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 16(6): 1961-1970. [14621] 31. Ritchie, J. C. 1957. The vegetation of northern Manitoba. II. A prisere on the Hudson Bay lowlands. Ecology. 38(3): 429-435. [10552] 32. Robuck, O. Wayne. 1985. The common plants of the muskegs of southeast Alaska. Miscellaneous Publication/July 1985. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 131 p. [11556] 33. Rowe, J. Stan. 1979. Large fires in the large landscapes of the North. In: Fire management in the northern environment: Proceedings of symposium; 1976 October 19-21; Anchorage, AK. BLM/AK/PROC-79/01. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management: 8-32. [15389] 34. Rowe, J. S.; Scotter, G. W. 1973. Fire in the boreal forest. Quaternary Research. 3: 444-464. [72] 35. Schoen, John W.; Kirchhoff, Matthew D. 1990. Seasonal habitat use by Sitka black-tailed deer on Admiralty Island, Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management. 54(3): 371-378. [11940] 36. Scotter, George W. 1967. The winter diet of barren-ground caribou in northern Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 81: 33-39. [16672] 37. Scotter, George W. 1972. Fire as an ecological factor in boreal forest ecosystems of Canada. In: Fire in the environment: Symposium proceedings; 1972 May 1-5; Denver, CO. FS-276. [Ogden, UT]: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, [Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station]: 15-25. [13404] 38. Sims, R. A.; Stewart, J. M. 1981. Aerial biomass distribution in an undisturbed and disturbed subarctic bog. Canadian Journal of Botany. 59: 782-786. [8414] 39. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907] 40. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Alaska Region. [n.d.]. Preliminary forest plant associations of the Stikine Area, Tongass National Forest. R10-TP-72. Portland, OR. 126 p. [19016] 42. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 43. Viereck, Leslie A. 1973. Wildfire in the taiga of Alaska. Quaternary Research. 3: 465-495. [7247] 44. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 265 p. [6884] 45. Viereck, L. A.; Dyrness, C. T.; Batten, A. R.; Wenzlick, K. J. 1992. The Alaska vegetation classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-286. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 278 p. [2431] 46. Viereck, Leslie A.; Schandelmeier, Linda A. 1980. Effects of fire in Alaska and adjacent Canada--a literature review. BLM-Alaska Tech. Rep. 6. Anchorage, AK: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Mangement, Alaska State Office. 124 p. [7075]

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