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SPECIES: Lespedeza bicolor | Bicolor Lespedeza
ABBREVIATION : LESBIC SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : LEBI COMMON NAMES : bicolor lespedeza shrub lespedeza Japanese bushclover TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name for bicolor lespedeza is Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. [1,13,18]. Recognized varieties are as follows [1]: L. bicolor var. bicolor Turcz. L. bicolor var. japonica L. bicolor var. rosa LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY COMPILED BY AND DATE : Julie L. Tesky, June 1992 LAST REVISED BY AND DATE : NO-ENTRY AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Tesky, Julie L. 1992. Lespedeza bicolor. In: Remainder of Citation


SPECIES: Lespedeza bicolor | Bicolor Lespedeza
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Bicolor lespedeza is native to Japan [14]. It has been introduced in the United States and now occurs throughout most of the Southeast from Arkansas to Maryland south to northern Florida and Texas [14,29]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES12 Longleaf - slash pine FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine FRES14 Oak - pine FRES15 Oak - hickory FRES31 Shinnery FRES32 Texas savanna FRES38 Plains grasslands FRES39 Prairie STATES : AL AR FL GA KY MD MS NC OK PA RI SC TN VT VA WV ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS : BISO GRSM OBRI BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 14 Great Plains KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K062 Mesquite - live oak savanna K069 Bluestem - grama prairie K071 Shinnery K076 Blackland prairie K077 Bluestem - sacahuista prairie K079 Palmetto prairie K084 Cross Timbers K085 Mesquite - buffalograss K086 Juniper - oak savanna K087 Mesquite - oak savanna K088 Fayette prairie K089 Black Belt K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest K112 Southern mixed forest K115 Sand pine scrub SAF COVER TYPES : 66 Ashe juniper - redberry (Pinchot) juniper 67 Mohrs ("shin") oak 68 Mesquite 69 Sand pine 70 Longleaf pine 71 Longleaf pine - scrub oak 75 Shortleaf pine 76 Shortleaf pine - oak 78 Virginia pine - oak 79 Virginia pine 80 Loblolly pine 81 Loblolly pine 82 Loblolly pine - hardwood 84 Slash pine 85 Slash pine - hardwood 89 Live oak SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : NO-ENTRY


SPECIES: Lespedeza bicolor | Bicolor Lespedeza
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : NO-ENTRY IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Bicolor lespedeza provides good cover for birds and small mammals [3,7]. It is often planted as food for northern bobwhite and other upland game birds [7,15]. On the Alabama Piedmont, the seeds of bicolor lespedeza comprised nearly 34.1 percent of the total food volume consumed by northern bobwhite [26]. Rabbits eat the bark in the winter. When planting bicolor lespedeza for wildlife food, direct seeding in the field is more successful than transplanting seedlings [29]. Bicolor lespedeza has been grown in Japan for hay production. Yields and quality are good [25]. PALATABILITY : NO-ENTRY NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Bicolor lespedeza seeds are high in protein content but are generally low in digestibility [20]. Nutritional values of aerial parts of fresh, immature and fresh, early bloom to full-bloom bicolor lespedeza are fair to poor. Some nutritional values (percent) are listed below [22]: aerial part, fresh immature fresh, early bloom calcium 1.63 1.57 iron 0.034 0.030 magnesium 0.38 0.33 phosphorous 0.48 0.24 potassium 1.65 1.21 P:Ca ratio 1:3 1:6 COVER VALUE : NO-ENTRY VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Bicolor lespedeza is a nitrogen-fixing legume planted for wildlife habitat improvement, erosion control, and stabilization along streambanks and steep slopes [14,16,29]. In the East it grows rapidly, and its leaves produce a heavy soil-protecting mulch. Nursery stock and field seedings of about 10 pounds per acre (1.5 kg/ha) are used for wildlife habitat enhancement and erosion control [14]. It has been planted on infertile acidic soils in the lower Coastal Plain of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and in the Piedmont of North Carolina and Virginia [17]. It has also been planted on sandy soils of eastern Texas [27]. Establishment is usually most rapid and assured by planting seedlings but can also be accomplished by direct seeding. Normally, seed is mixed and sown with herbaceous species [29]. The cultivator 'Natob' is an early maturing, hardy, geographic strain of bicolor lespedeza. 'Natob' is more winter hardy than any other lespedeza shrub grown in this country [3,7]. This culitvator is recommended where the growing season is 145 days or longer and the first frost is September 25 or later. Its seed yield is about 350 pounds per acre (52.9 kg/ha) in most parts of the recommended area [3]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Bicolor lespedza is a good source of pollen for honey bees [14]. It is often planted as an ornamental in the southeastern United States [25]. Tryptophane-derived alkaloids having uterus-contracting or halucinogenic properties have been isolated in Japanese laboratories from Lespedeza bicolor var. japonic [1]. MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Bicolor lespedeza can interfere with initial tree growth and survival and make later management operations difficult [17].


SPECIES: Lespedeza bicolor | Bicolor Lespedeza
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Bicolor lespedeza is an introduced, large, leguminous, deciduous shrub ranging in height from 4 to 10 feet (1.2-3 m) [2,14]. It has an upright spreading stem with many slender branches [2,27]. The leaves are rounded 0.79 to 2 inches (2-5 cm) long [2]. Bicolor lespedeza has no taproot but does have a much branched, well-nodulated, lateral root system [7]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Sexual reproduction: Bicolor lespedeza is easily propogated by seed. The flowers are self-pollinated or cross-pollinated by honeybees, bumblebees, and other insects [29]. The fruit is a one-seeded, indehiscent pod [13]. Seeds are stored in the seed bank or ingested by birds and dispersed in their droppings [7,15]. Invitro bicolor lespedeza seeds immersed in water for 16 hours at room temperature required at least 3 days to germinate. Germination was 10 percent after 3 days and 30 percent after 7 days [6]. Germination is enhanced by scarification [9,29]. Seeds may remain viable for up to 20 years if stored at 50 degrees Fahrenheit (10 deg C) and 40 percent relative humidity [29]. Vegetative reproduction: Bicolor lespedeza will sprout from the root crown after top-kill [23,25]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Bicolor lespedeza is found in fields, open woodlands, clearings, fence and hedge rows, and along roadsides [13]. It occurs at elevations from sea level to 2,500 feet (762 m) [30]. It is capable of maintaining itself on acidic (lower pH limit 4.5) nutrient-poor soils [17,30]. It is not frost tolerant and is often killed to the ground where the date of the first killing frost is September 30 or earlier [7]. Bicolor lespedeza is somewhat shade tolerant [14]. SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Bicolor lespedeza is a colonizer of early- to mid-seral grassland and some open forest communities after disturbance. It is most abundant in communities that are frequently disturbed and may become the dominant species in these areas [26]. Bicolor lespedeza abundance will gradually decrease in the absence of disturbance. Bicolor lespedeza densities generally remain high in areas with a disturbance regime of 4 years [5,26]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Bicolor lespedeza generally flowers in July and August, but flowering begins as early as June in Mississippi and as late as September in Maryland [29]. The fruit ripens in late September to late October [7,29]. The pods fall to the ground when ripe and most of them are down by early winter [29].


SPECIES: Lespedeza bicolor | Bicolor Lespedeza
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Bicolor lespedeza will sprout from the root crown following top-kill [7,23,25]. Both on-site, fire-scarified seeds and off-site seeds are important sources for colonizing burned areas [9]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : survivor species; on-site surviving root crown or caudex off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2 Ground residual colonizer (onsite, initial community)


SPECIES: Lespedeza bicolor | Bicolor Lespedeza
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Fire may top-kill bicolor lespedeza. High-severity fires may consume seeds stored in the seed bank and destroy underground portions of the plant. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Bicolor lespedeza generally increases in density under a frequent burning regime (4 years) [7,26] because it sprouts from the root crown after top-kill [7,23,25] and establishes new individuals from both on- and off-site seed sources [8]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : On a site cleared and burned every 4 years since 1962 in the Georgia Piedmont, bicolor lespedeza density was 1,529 per acre (619/ha) compared to 0 on an adjacent site with no previous burning history [5]. The effects of burning, fertilizing and a combination of both on the plant community in the Alabama Piedmont was studied. The extent of coverage of bicolor lespedeza on the various treated sites is as follows [26]: Unburned and unfertilized= 0.01 Fertilized only= 0.16 Burned only (4 year interval)= 0.73 Burned and fertilized= 0.60 Bicolor lespedeza spread into the woods as a result of regular burning on the North Auburn area and on a large Piedmont private quail preserve in Alabama. On these areas it has become the dominant understory species [26]. Bicolor lespedeza germination has been shown to increase with dry heat treatments of up to 194 degrees Fahrenheit (90 deg C). The percent germination of bicolor lespedeza seed treated with dry heat during the summer of 1966 was as follows [9]: Dry heat (degrees C) Control 45 60 70 80 90 100 110 (% germ) 4 44 68 80 100 100 0 0 FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Prescribed fire can increase bicolor lespedeza density [5,9,26] and consequently improve the habitat for northern bobwhite and other game birds. Nitrogen is a main soil nutrient lost during fire [31]. Because bicolor lespedeza is a nitrogen-fixing plant, it can be planted on burned sites to restore nitrogen to the soil [17].


SPECIES: Lespedeza bicolor | Bicolor Lespedeza
REFERENCES : 1. Allen, O. N.; Allen, E. K. 1981. The Leguminesae, a source book of characteristics, uses, and nodulation. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. 1981 p. [18260] 2. Apgar, A. C. 1910. Ornamental shrubs of the United States. American Book Company. [18261] 3. Belcher, C. R.; Sharp, W. C. 1979. Tasty Lespedezas. Soil Conservation. 44(11): 4-5. [18263] 4. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 5. Boring, Lindsay R.; Hendricks, Joseph J.; Edwards, M. Boyd. 1991. Loss, retention, and replacement of nitrogen associated with site preparation burning in southern pine-hardwood forests. In: Nodvin, Stephen C.; Waldrop, Thomas A., eds. Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives: Proceedings of an international symposium; 1990 March 20-24; Knoxville, TN. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-69. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 145-153. [16645] 6. Buta, J. G.; Lusby, W. R. 1986. Catechins as germination and growth inhibitors in Lespedeza seeds. Phytochemistry. 25(1): 93-95. [18264] 7. Crider, Franklin J. 1952. Natob: a new bush Lespedeza for soil conservation. Circular No. 900. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 10 p. [18308] 8. Cushwa, Charles T.; Hopkins, Melvin; McGinnes, Burd S. 1970. Response of legumes to prescribed burns in loblolly pine stands of the South Carolina Piedmont. Res. Note SE-140. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 6 p. [11587] 9. Cushwa, Charles T.; Martin, Robert E.; Miller, Robert L. 1968. The effects of fire on seed germination. Journal of Range Management. 21: 250-254. [11494] 10. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 11. Garren, Kenneth H. 1943. Effects of fire on vegetation of the southeastern United States. Botanical Review. 9: 617-654. [9517] 12. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; [and others]. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998] 13. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239] 14. Graham, Edward H. 1941. Legumes for erosion control and wildlife. Misc. Publ. 412. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 153 p. [10234] 15. Grelen, Harold E.; Hughes, Ralph H. 1984. Common herbaceous plants of Southern forest range. Res. Pap. SO-210. New Orleans, LA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest and Range Experiment Station. 147 p. [2946] 16. Hartley, Jeanne J.; Arner, Dale H.; Hartley, Danny R. 1990. Survival of planted woody species on disposal areas of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. In: Hughes, H. Glenn; Bonnicksen, Thomas M., eds. Restoration '89: the new management challenge: Proceedings, 1st annual meeting of the Society for Ecological Restoration; 1989 January 16-20; Oakland, CA. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Arboretum, Society for Ecological Restoration: 244-250. [12090] 17. Jorgensen, J. R.; Craig, J. R. 1983. Legumes in forestry: results of adaptability trials in the southeast. Res. Pap. SE-237. Asheville, NC: U.S. Deparment of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeast Forest Experiment Station. 11 p. [18307] 18. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 19. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 20. Landers, J. Larry. 1981. The role of fire in bobwhite quail management. In: Wood, Gene W., ed. Prescribed fire and wildlife in southern forests: Proceedings of a symposium; 1981 April 6-8; Myrtle Beach, SC. Georgetown, SC: Clemson University, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute: 73-80. [14812] 21. McKee, Roland. 1946. Lespedeza culture and utilization (Rev.). Farmer's Bulletin No. 1852. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 14 p. [18311] 22. National Academy of Sciences. 1971. Atlas of nutritional data on United States and Canadian feeds. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 772 p. [1731] 23. Pieters, A. J. 1950. Sericea and other perennial lespedezas for forage and soil conservation. Circular 863. Wahsington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 48 p. [18310] 24. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 25. Sears, O. H.; Burlison, W. L. 1943. Lespedeza: its place in Illinois agriculture. Circular 561. Urbana, IL: Uinviersity of Illionis, College of Agriculture, Extension Service in Agriculture and Home Economics. 19 p. [18309] 26. Speake, Dan W. 1966. Effects of controlled burning on bobwhite quail populations and habitat of an experimental area in the Alabama piedmont. Proceedings, Annual Conference of Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissions. 20: 19-32. [14649] 27. Turner, B. L. 1959. The legumes of Texas. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 10 p. [18259] 28. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. Vol. 1. List of plant names. SCS-TP-159. Washington, DC. 416 p. [11573] 29. Vogel, Willis G. 1974. Lespedeza Michx. lespedeza. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 488-490. [7690] 30. Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minesoils in the eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 190 p. [15576] 31. Wells, C. G.; Campell, Ralph E.; DeBano, Leonard F.; [and others]. 1979. Effects of fire on soil: state-of-knowledge review. WO-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 34 p. [6734]


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