1Up Info - A Portal with a Difference

1Up Travel - A Travel Portal with a Difference.    
1Up Info
   

Earth & Environment History Literature & Arts Health & Medicine People Places Plants & Animals  Philosophy & Religion   Science & Technology Social Science & Law Sports & Everyday Life Wildlife, Animals, & Plants Country Study Encyclopedia A -Z
North America Gazetteer


You are here >1Up Info > Wildlife, Animals, and Plants > Plant Species > Shrub > Species: Sarcobatus vermiculatus | Black Greasewood
 

Wildlife, Animals, and Plants

 


Wildlife, Animals, and Plants

 

Wildlife Species

  Amphibians

  Birds

  Mammals

  Reptiles

 

Kuchler

 

Plants

  Bryophyte

  Cactus

  Fern or Fern Ally

  Forb

  Graminoid

  Lichen

  Shrub

  Tree

  Vine


Introductory

SPECIES: Sarcobatus vermiculatus | Black Greasewood
ABBREVIATION : SARVER SYNONYMS : S. vermiculatus var. baileyi (Coville) Jepson SCS PLANT CODE : SAVE4 COMMON NAMES : black greasewood greasewood chico TAXONOMY : The fully documented scientific name of black greasewood is Sarcobatus vermiculatus (Hook.)Torr. Two distinct chromosomal races have been described (4n and 8n) but have not been shown to be correlated with morphological or ecological characteristics [56]. LIFE FORM : Shrub FEDERAL LEGAL STATUS : No special status OTHER STATUS : NO-ENTRY COMPILED BY AND DATE : D. Tirmenstein, February 1987 LAST REVISED BY AND DATE : D. Tirmenstein, June 1990 AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION : Tirmenstein, D. Sarcobatus vermiculatus. 1987. In: Remainder of Citation

DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE

SPECIES: Sarcobatus vermiculatus | Black Greasewood
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Black greasewood is widely distributed from the northern desert ranges of Canada to Mexico [39]. It occurs in Washington and Oregon east of the Cascades to southeastern California east of the Sierras [21]. Black greasewood extends eastward to the Dakotas, Wyoming, and Colorado, and southward into northwestern New Mexico and Texas [21]. It is a dominant species throughout much of the Great Basin [50]. ECOSYSTEMS : FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood FRES21 Ponderosa pine FRES29 Sagebrush FRES30 Desert shrub FRES35 Pinyon - juniper FRES36 Mountain grasslands FRES38 Plains grasslands FRES40 Desert grasslands STATES : AZ CA CO ID KS MT NV NM ND OK OR SD TX UT WA WY AB BC SK MEXICO ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS : ARCH BADL BICA CANY CARE CHCU COLM DEVA DINO FOBU GLCA GRCA GRTE GRSA JODA MEVE NABR PEFO THRO WUPA YELL BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS : 5 Columbia Plateau 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 8 Northern Rocky Mountains 9 Middle Rocky Mountains 10 Wyoming Basin 11 Southern Rocky Mountains 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont 15 Black Hills Uplift 16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS : K011 Western ponderosa forest K016 Eastern ponderosa forest K017 Black Hills pine forest K018 Pine - Douglas-fir forest K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland K037 Mountain mahogany - oak scrub K038 Great Basin sagebrush K039 Blackbrush K040 Saltbush - greasewood K041 Creosotebush K051 Wheatgrass - bluegrass K055 Sagebrush steppe K056 Wheatgrass - needlegrass shrubsteppe K057 Galleta - three-awn shrubsteppe K063 Foothills prairie K064 Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass K065 Grama - buffalograss K066 Wheatgrass - needlegrass K098 Northern floodplain forest SAF COVER TYPES : 237 Interior ponderosa pine 239 Pinyon - juniper SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES : 211 Creosotebush scrub 314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass 315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue 316 Big sagebrush-rough fescue 320 Black sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass 321 Black sagebrush-Idaho fescue 401 Basin big sagebrush 403 Wyoming big sagebrush 405 Black sagebrush 408 Other sagebrush types 414 Salt desert shrub 501 Saltbush-greasewood 506 Creosotebush-bursage HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Black greasewood is an indicator of nonclimatic (physiographic, edaphic, or biotic) climax in a number of saltbush (Atriplex spp.), sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), and sagebrush-grassland communities. It occurs as a codominant with western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus), bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides), saltgrass (Distichlis spicata), ricegrass (Oryzopsis spp.), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), budsage (A. spinescens), rubber rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), and shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia). Published classifications listing black greasewood as a plant community dominant or indicator are: Vegetation and soils of the Cow Creek Watershed [2] Vegetation and soils of Churchill Canyon Watershed [3] Distribution of plant communities in southeastern Montana badlands [6] Steppe vegetation of Washington [9] Sagebrush-steppe habitat types in northern Colorado: a first approximation [14] Preliminary habitat types of a semiarid grassland [15] The vegetation of the Grand River/Cedar River, Sioux, and Ashland Districts of the Custer National Forest: a habitat type classification [19] A series vegetation calssification for Region 3 [31] Grassland an shrubland habitat types of western Montana [33] A vegetation classification system applied to southern California [36] Grassland and shrubland habitat types of the Shoshone National Forest [58] Sagebrush steppe [63] Plant associates: Other plants commonly occurring with black greasewood include black sagebrush (A. nova), Nevada ephedra (Ephedra nevadensis), Nuttall's saltbush (Atriplex nuttallii), fourwing saltbush (A. canescens), green rabbitbrush (C. visicidiflorus), Russian-thistle (Salsola kali), spiny hopsage (Grayia spinosa), alkali sacton (Sporobolus airoides), cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), and pickleweed (Allenrolfea occidentalis) [13,29]. Understory vegetation is often sparse in black greasewood communities. Bare soil may represent a fairly large percentage of the cover and plants are often widely spaced. In a western Utah study, greasewood averaged 13 individuals per square rod [13].

VALUE AND USE

SPECIES: Sarcobatus vermiculatus | Black Greasewood
WOOD PRODUCTS VALUE : NO-ENTRY IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE : Black greasewood is a valuable browse for livestock and wildlife, particularly during fall and winter [50,55]. It does, however, contain soluable oxalates which are poisonous to livestock when the plant is eaten in large quantities [59,62]. Consumption of black greasewood has resulted in mass sheep mortality but cattle are rarely poisoned [55]. Sheep generally die after consuming approximately 2 pounds (0.9 kg) of leaves, but cattle can eat 3 to 4 pounds (1.4-1.8 kg) before death occurs [62]. Toxicity generally increases in fall as the plant matures [62], but concentrated feeding on the young stems and leaves during the early spring can cause illness or death [50]. Livestock poisoning is rarely a problem where greasewood grows intermixed with other forage species [29]. In many areas, black greasewood provides forage for pronghorn and mule deer [29,59]. Small mammals such as the white-tailed prairie dog, chisel-toothed kangaroo rat, Ord kangaroo rat, painted chipmunk, western chipmunk, porcupine, and jackrabbits also feed on black greasewood [4,50,59]. PALATABILITY : Palatability of black greasewood varies geographically and with site characteristics. Foliage tends to concentrate alkalines, and this shrub may be less palatable on some sites, such as on certain California alkali flats, than on many other western sites [51]. Palatability of black greasewood has been rated as follows [10,51]: CA CO MT ND UT WY Cattle Fair-Useless Poor Fair Fair Fair Fair Sheep Fair-Poor Fair Fair Fair Fair Fair Horses Useless Poor Fair Fair Fair Fair Domestic goats Fair-Poor ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Pronghorn ---- ---- Fair Fair Fair Fair Elk ---- ---- Poor ---- Poor Poor Mule deer Poor ---- Poor Good Fair Fair White-tailed deer ---- Fair Poor ---- ---- Poor Small mammals ---- ---- ---- ---- Fair Fair Small nongame birds ---- ---- ---- ---- Fair Poor Upland game birds ---- Poor ---- ---- Fair ---- Waterfowl ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Poor NUTRITIONAL VALUE : Black greasewood is rated fair in energy and protein value [10]. Average crude protein content of Montana greasewood from 2 seasons averaged 8.4 percent and 9.0 percent [23]. Nutritional content as established by the National Academy of Sciences [35] is as follows: Browse Buds (fresh) Ash % 14.6 16.3 Crude fiber % 23.5 9.3 Ether extract % 3.4 3.3 N-free extract % 37.3 36.8 Protein (Nx6.25) % 21.4 34.3 Calcium % 0.91 ---- Phosphorus % 0.18 ---- Copper mg/kg 15.7 ---- Manganese mg/kg 25.8 ---- Carotene mg/kg 43.4 ---- Cobolt mg/kg 0.060 ---- COVER VALUE : The spiny-tipped branches and coarse structure of black greasewood provide good cover for small nesting birds and for many species of small mammals. Cover value has been rated as follows [8,10,26]: CO MT ND OR UT WY Pronghorn ---- Fair Fair ---- Fair Good Elk ---- Poor ---- ---- Poor Fair Mule deer Good Fair Good Poor Fair ---- White-tailed deer Good Fair ---- ---- ---- Fair Small mammals Good Good ---- Good Good Fair Small nongame birds Fair Good ---- Good Good Fair Upland game birds ---- Fair ---- ---- Good Poor Waterfowl ---- Poor Good ---- ---- ---- VALUE FOR REHABILITATION OF DISTURBED SITES : Black greasewood is well-suited for stabilizing disturbed sites such as mine spoils and road scars on saline or alkaline soils [29,37]. It is rated as having low to moderate potential for erosion control and for short-term revegetation, but moderate to high potential for long-term revegetation projects [10]. Plants may be transplanted, propagated from cuttings, or grown from seed [37,42]. Transplants: Black greasewood has been successfully transplanted onto mine spoils in New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming [16,27,60]. At a mine site in southwestern Wyoming, mature plants were transplanted onto an overburden dump with a pH of 7.0 to 7.5 [27]. Establishment of mature black greasewood provided some immediate cover for wildlife and created islands for later seed dispersal. Relative costs and first-year survivorship were documented as follows [27]: # transplanted # surviving % survival cost/plant mature wildlings 31 30 97 $2.26 front-end loader transplants 8 8 100 $4.49 Survivorship 5 years after transplants were established at a Uinta Basin site averaged 75 percent, with an average height of 15 inches (38 cm) [16]. Seed: Black greasewood has been successfully seeded onto mine spoils in southwestern Wyoming and elsewhere [27]. At least 500 pounds (227 kg) of seed is sold annually [39]. Seed can remain viable for more than 5 years if stored properly [39]. Seed from a nearby source should be used to ensure that the particular ecotype selected will grow well in the desired location [39]. Appropriate seed collection and storage techniques have been examined in detail [39]. Cuttings: Rooting greasewood cuttings is difficult and success may depend in part on yearly variations in temperature and precipitation [42]. Cuttings from greenhouse-grown plants tend to root more readily than do cuttings obtained from field-grown plants [42]. Black greasewood concentrates large amounts of sodium in the surface soils under the canopy [45]. This sodium accumulation may eventually alter the soil chemistry, making reclamation more difficult [49]. OTHER USES AND VALUES : Black greasewood has traditionally been used as fuel and for planting sticks by the Hopi and other Native American peoples [55]. MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Grazing: Black greasewood increases in response to grazing [33]. Greasewood's typical valley-bottom habitat makes this community best suited for late fall, winter, and early spring cattle range [33]. Chemical and mechanical control: Black greasewood is difficult to control with herbicides, fire, or mechanical treatments [7,33]. Plants commonly sprout after application of various herbicides [62]. After partial kill by herbicides, black greasewood typically exhibits an increased growth rate and a lengthened period of accelerated vegetative development [49]. Soil chemistry: Sodium, the major cation present in black greasewood leaves, may comprise up to 69 to 88 percent (57-115 mg/g) of the total cations present [45]. Sodium uptake by black greasewood and the associated decay of sodium-enriched leaf litter can alter soil chemistry [43,45]. Erosion, resulting from or increased by overgrazing, can also result in increased soil salinity [43,45]. These soil changes may eventually make a site too harsh for the growth of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) [43].

BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

SPECIES: Sarcobatus vermiculatus | Black Greasewood
GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Black greasewood is a native, long-lived, winter deciduous, perennial shrub which grows 3.3 to 8.2 feet (1.0-2.5 m) in height [11,46,55]. It is most typically a freely-branched and spreading shrub, although rounded and erect growth forms also occur [20,55]. Branches, some of which end in spines, are rigid and numerous [20,55]. Bark is smooth and whitish, and graying at maturity [21,55]. Black greasewood typically has a long taproot. Roots can extend 20 to 57 feet (6.1-17.4 m) below the soil surface [13]. Leaves of black greasewood are simple, linear, alternate, and fleshy, with entire margins [20,55]. The leaves are shed in winter. Numerous staminate flowers are borne on fleshy, catkinlike terminal spikes, whereas pistillate flowers form singly or in pairs in the axils of leaflike bracts [7,55]. Fruit is a small, coriaceous achene which is winged at the middle [55,59,61]. The fruit contains small brown seeds [34,61]. RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM : Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES : Seed: Black greasewood is generally monoecious. Staminate and pistillate flowers mature at different times, thus maximizing opportunities for cross-pollination [49]. According to McArthur and Sanderson [30], the investment in male and female functions varies from dry to mesic sites, allowing for efficient occupation of patchy, stressful, and heterogeneous environments. Seeds mature in the fall and are dehisced over the winter [49]. Some seed is produced annually [39,55], but abundant seed production is limited to occasional years [4]. Seed production also apparently varies according to levels of disturbance. Roundy and others [49] report that black greasewood is a poor seed producer on undisturbed sites. Only 20 percent of the plants on undisturbed sites produced seed, with an average total of less than 20 seeds per plant [49]. However, where 30 percent of the black greasewood had been killed, resprouted plants produced an average of 250 seeds [49]. Seed fill varies from 16 to 94 percent [11]. Germination: An afterripening period of 30 to 60 days is generally required for the embryo to mature [11]. Laboratory studies have indicated that optimum germination occurs within an average of 5.5 days at a constant temperature of 52 degrees F (11 degrees C) and -16 moisture requirement bars [50]. Under natural conditions, most seeds germinate during relatively long periods of high soil moisture [46]. The presence or absence of light does not appear to affect germination rates [50]. The presence of the membranous pericarp and enclosing papery bracts, however, does influence germination [64]. When the pericarp was broken, the embryo uncoiled within an hour, and root hairs developed within 24 hours [11]. When the pericarp remained undamaged, the seeds quickly imbibed water, but germination was slow and many seeds had not germinated after 30 days [11]. Both inter- and intra-population differences in germination have been observed at varying osmotic potentials and salt concentrations, and ecotypic variation in germination characteristics is suspected [46]. A certain proportion of seed commonly fails to germinate at low osmotic potential or where salt concentrations are high. These remaining seeds may germinate later, thus representing an adaptation to a range of environmental conditions [46]. Vegetative regeneration: Black greasewood typically sprouts after fire, application of herbicides, and other types of disturbance [62,65]. SITE CHARACTERISTICS : Black greasewood grows on dry, sunny, flat valley bottoms, on lowland floodplains, in ephemeral stream channels, and at playa margins [49,57]. It is a dominant plant throughout much of the Great Basin and Mojave Desert. Black greasewood occurs in salt shrublands, inland saltgrass, northern and southern desert shrub, and pinyon-juniper communities [34,37]. Black greasewood communities generally occur below the moister sagebrush or shadscale zones [49]. In high saline areas, black greasewood often grows in nearly pure stands, although on less saline sites it commonly grows with a number of other shrub species and typically has a grass understory [29]. Soil: The growth and distribution of black greasewood is affected by soil salinity, ionic concentrations, soil depth, and total water potential [48]. Black greasewood is often considered an indicator of saline-sodic or relatively moist soils [44,50]. Sites typically have clay-loam, silt-loam, or deep, fine, sandy loam soils with high salinity or alkalinity [11,21]. Although black greasewood most commonly develops on finely textured saline or alkaline soils, it occasionally grows on coarsely textured nonsaline soils [46]. Black greasewood is often abundant on outcrops of alkaline or salt-bearing shales with little soil development [38,53]. In some areas, the salt content of the soil 3 feet (1 m) below the surface reaches 1.08 percent [13]. When salinity increases above this level, black greasewood becomes yellow and dwarfed [13]. Representative pH levels at a black greasewood site are as follows [6]: pH Na (me/100g) Ca (me/100g) upper soil 7.9 9.1 9.1 lower soil 8.0 12.0 15.4 Exchangeable sodium can range up to 12.0 me/100 g, with a pH as high as 9.82 [11]. Black greasewood is highly tolerant of boron, as well as sodium, in the soil beneath the canopy [43,48]. Climate: Black greasewood is tolerant of a wide range of climatic conditions but most commonly grows in areas with hot, dry summers [44]. The distribution of black greasewood is thought to be highly dependent on a high soil moisture content below the depth of seasonal precipitation percolation [45,57]. It commonly occurs in areas with a seasonally high water table and is often the only green shrub in pluvial desert sites with available groundwater [63]. Average annual precipitation ranges from 5 to 10 inches (12-25 cm) [48]. The water table is generally within 14.8 feet (4.5 m) of the soil surface, and may rise seasonally to 5 to 3.3 feet (1.5-1 m) below the surface [48]. Elevation: Elevational ranges by geographic area have been documented as follows [10,34,61]: from 3,000 to 7,000 feet (914-2,134 m) in CA 4,500 to 8,500 feet (1,373-2,593 m) in CO 4,000 to 7,118 feet (1,220-2,170 m) in UT 3,600 to 7,300 feet (1,098-2,227 m) in WY SUCCESSIONAL STATUS : Black greasewood, a long-lived species, occurs as a nonclimatic climax indicator in many saltbush, sagebrush, or sagebrush-grassland communities. It is described as a "stable dominant" under moist-sodic edaphic climax conditons [11]. Black greasewood can compete after disturbance and is also well represented in a number of early seral communities. Many Great Basin sites now occupied by black greasewood were formerly dominated by Great Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus) or big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) [7,43]. Soil changes in the form of increased salinity brought about by litter deposition of greasewood may have led to the replacement of sagebrush [43]. With increasing salinity (above 1.08 percent), black greasewood is replaced by species such as inland saltgrass (Distichilis stricta var. stricta), pickleweed (Allenrolfea occidentalis), or samphire (Salicornia utahensis) [13]. SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT : Vegetative development: Leaves of black greasewood appear in mid to late spring [55]. Vegetative growth is initially slow, but a period of accelerated growth, lasting from 3 to 6 weeks, occurs annually from late May to early July [49]. Increased soil temperatures may promote accelerated growth of greasewood, while low soil moisture ends this rapid period of growth [49]. Accelerated leader growth at a Nevada site was documented as follows [49]: Onset Date Cessation Date Average Range Average Range May 15 May 10-25 June 30 June 25-July 10 May 15 May 15 June 15 June 5-25 May 15 May 10-25 June 20 June 5-July 10 Leaves of black greasewood are shed in early fall or over the winter months [49]. Phenological development of black greasewood at a southwestern Colorado site was documented as follows [5]: Stage Date dormant October-December early leaf March full leaf April flower buds developing April early bloom May fruit developing June seed ripening July seed shattering July-September Flowering: The appearance of spikes coincides with the onset of rapid growth, with spikes opening after maximum vegetative growth is completed [49]. Reddish-green, winged utricles are formed by the pistillate flowers from late July to late August [11,49]. Floral development at a Nevada site was as follows [49]: Staminate Staminate Staminate Winged calyxes Utricles flowers appear flowers open flowers dried formed matured May 25 June 8 July 1 July 20 October May 16 June 7 June 20 July 25 October Generalized flowering by geographic area is as follows [10,34]: Location Beginning of flowering End of flowering CA May August CO May August MT June June ND June July UT July October WY May September Seed matures from late July through November. Seeds are shed from late fall through the following spring [11,49].

FIRE ECOLOGY

SPECIES: Sarcobatus vermiculatus | Black Greasewood
FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Black greasewood is generally only slightly harmed or undamaged by fire [65]. It resprouts readily following fire and can also reestablish a site through abundant, light, wind-dispersed seed [11,65]. Many black greasewood communities have insufficient fine fuels to carry a fire and burn infrequently [7,17,65]. Vegetation between the widely dispersed black greasewood plants may be sparse and many communities are characterized by a large amount of bare soil. However, communities which have considerable amounts of cheatgrass or which have been seeded with crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) exhibit higher fire frequencies [N. Shaw, pers. comm. 1990]. POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY : Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)

FIRE EFFECTS

SPECIES: Sarcobatus vermiculatus | Black Greasewood
IMMEDIATE FIRE EFFECT ON PLANT : Black greasewood is described as "slightly damaged to unharmed" by fire. Plants are rarely killed even when fire consumes aboveground vegetation [65]. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF FIRE EFFECT : NO-ENTRY PLANT RESPONSE TO FIRE : Vegetative response: Black greasewood generally sprouts vigorously from the stem base or roots following fire [9,65]. Rapid resprouting may lead to an increase in stem density [65]. Black greasewood has exhibited an increased growth rate and lengthened period of accelerated growth after being partially killed by herbicides [49]. A similar response may occur after the plant is partially killed by fire. Seedling establishment: Black greasewood can reoccupy a site through an abundance of light, wind-dispersed seed [11,65]. Evidence suggests that resprouted greasewood on disturbed sites produces more seed than plants growing in adjacent undisturbed communities [49]. However, Young [65] observed relatively poor seed production in the first year after fire. DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE : Although most studies indicate that black greasewood is relatively unharmed by fire, the degree of damage may vary according to season of burn, fuel loading, and intensity of fire. Following a fall fire in Wyoming, Smith and others [54] noted that black greasewood exhibited much greater mortality than would have been predicted on the basis of its tendency to resprout. This fire was quite intense due to high total fuel loads [54]. FIRE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS : Many black greasewood communities will burn only during "very hazardous" fire conditions because of limited fuels [7].

REFERENCES

SPECIES: Sarcobatus vermiculatus | Black Greasewood
REFERENCES : 1. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434] 2. Blackburn, Wilbert H.; Eckert, Richard E., Jr.; Tueller, Paul T. 1969. Vegetation and soils of the Cow Creek Watershed. R-49. Reno, NV: University of Nevada, Agricultural Experiment Station. 77 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. [458] 3. Blackburn, Wilbert H.; Tueller, Paul T.; Eckert, Richard E., Jr. 1969. Vegetation and soils of the Churchill Canyon Watershed. R-45. Reno, NV: University of Nevada, Agricultural Experiment Station. 155 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. [460] 4. Blaisdell, James P.; Holmgren, Ralph C. 1984. Managing Intermountain rangelands--salt-desert shrub ranges. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-163. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 52 p. [464] 5. Branson, Farrel A.; Miller, Reuben F.; McQueen, I. S. 1976. Moisture relationships in twelve northern desert shrub communities near Grand Junction, Colorado. Ecology. 57(6): 1104-1124. [510] 6. Brown, Ray W. 1971. Distribution of plant communities in southeastern Montana badlands. American Midland Naturalist. 85(2): 458-477. [546] 7. Cluff, Greg J.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Evans, Raymond A.; Young, James A. 1984. Potential for herbicidal brush control in salt-desert plant communities. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; Stevens, Richard; Johnson, Kendall L., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. General Technical Report Int-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 80-86. [655] 8. Dealy, J. Edward; Leckenby, Donavin A.; Concannon, Diane M. 1981. Wildlife habitats on managed rangelands--the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: plant communities and their importance to wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-120. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest and Range Experiment Station. 66 p. [786] 9. Daubenmire, R. 1970. Steppe vegetation of Washington. Technical Bulletin 62. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, College of Agriculture, Washington Agricultural Experiment Station. 131 p. [733] 10. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806] 11. Eddleman, Lee E. 1979. Germination in black greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus ( Hook.) Torr.). Northwest Science. 53(4): 289-294. [846] 12. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905] 13. Fautin, Reed W. 1946. Biotic communities of the northern desert shrub biome in western Utah. Ecological Monographs. 16: 252-310. [913] 14. Francis, Richard E. 1983. Sagebrush-steppe habitat types in northern Colorado: a first approximation. In: Moir, W. H.; Hendzel, Leonard, tech. coords. Proceedings of the workshop on Southwestern habitat types; 1983 April 6-8; Albuquerque, NM. Abluquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region: 67-71. [955] 15. Francis, Richard E.; Aldon, Earl F. 1983. Preliminary habitat types of a semiarid grassland. In: Moir, W. H.; Hendzel, Leonard, tech. coords. Proceedings of the workshop on Southwestern habitat types; 1983 April 6-8; Albuquerque, NM. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region: 62-66. [956] 16. Frischknecht, Neil C.; Ferguson, Robert B. 1984. Performance of Chenopodiaceae species on processed oil shale. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; [and others], compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 293-297. [977] 17. Gipe, Donald. 1976. Response of range to burning. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference: Pacific Northwest; 1974 October 16-17; Portland, OR. No. 15. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 16-17. [1023] 18. Grime, J. P. 1979. Plant strategies & vegetation proceses. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons. 222 p. [2896] 19. Hansen, Paul L.; Hoffman, George R. 1988. The vegetation of the Grand River/Cedar River, Sioux, and Ashland Districts of the Custer National Forest: a habitat type classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-157. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 68 p. [771] 20. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1964. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 2: Salicaceae to Saxifragaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 597 p. [1166] 21. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168] 22. Holmgren, Arthur H.; Reveal, James L. 1966. Checklist of the vascular plants of the Intermountain Region. Res. Pap. INT-32. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 160 p. [1184] 23. Jameson, Donald A. 1952. Nutritive value of browse on Montana winter ranges. Journal of Range Management. 5: 306-310. [1245] 24. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954] 25. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 77 p. [1384] 26. Leckenby, Donavin A.; Sheehy, Dennis P.; Nellis, Carl H.; [and others]. 1982. Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands--the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon: mule deer. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-139. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 40 p. [1432] 27. Luke, Forrest; Monsen, Stephen B. 1984. Methods and costs for establishing shrubs on mined lands in southwestern Wyoming. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; [and others], compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 286-291. [1485] 28. Lyon, L. Jack; Stickney, Peter F. 1976. Early vegetal succession following large northern Rocky Mountain wildfires. In: Proceedings, Tall Timbers fire ecology conference and Intermountain Fire Research Council fire and land management symposium; 1974 October 8-10; Missoula, MT. No. 14. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 355-373. [1496] 29. McArthur, E. Durant; Plummer, A. Perry; Davis, James N. 1978. Rehabilitation of game range in the salt desert. In: Johnson, Kendall L., ed. Wyoming shrublands: Proceedings of the 7th Wyomingshrub ecology workshop; 1978 May 31-June 1; Rock Springs, WY. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, Range Management Division, Wyoming Shrub Ecology Workshop: 23-50. [1575] 30. McArthur, E. Durant; Sanderson, Stewart C. 1984. Distribution, systematics and evolution of Chenopodiaceae: an overview. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R. [and others], compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT:U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 14-24. [1577] 31. Moir, W. H. 1983. A series vegetation classification for Region 3. In: Moir, W. H.; Hendzel, Leonard, tech. coords. Proceedings of the workshop on Southwestern habitat types; 1983 April 6-8; Albuquerque, NM. Albuquerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region: 91-95. [1672] 32. Mozingo, Hugh N. 1987. Shrubs of the Great Basin: A natural history. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press. 342 p. [1702] 33. Mueggler, W. F.; Stewart, W. L. 1980. Grassland and shrubland habitat types of western Montana. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-66. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 154 p. [1717] 34. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155] 35. National Academy of Sciences. 1971. Atlas of nutritional data on United States and Canadian feeds. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. 772 p. [1731] 36. Paysen, Timothy E.; Derby, Jeanine A.; Black, Hugh, Jr.; [and others]. 1980. A vegetation classification system applied to southern California. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-45. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 33 p. [1849] 37. Plummer, A. Perry. 1977. Revegetation of disturbed Intermountain area sites. In: Thames, J. C., ed. Reclamation and use of disturbed lands of the Southwest. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press: 302-337. [171] 38. Plummer, A. Perry; Christensen, Donald R.; Monsen, Stephen B. 1968. Restoring big-game range in Utah. Publ. No. 68-3. Ephraim, UT: Utah Division of Fish and Game. 183 p. [4554] 39. Plummer, Mark. 1984. Considerations in selecting chenopod species for range seeding. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R. [and others], compilers. Proceedings--symposium on thebiology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 183-186. [1903] 40. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843] 41. Reed, Clyde F. 1952. Contributions toward a flora of Nevada. No. 41. Chenopodiaceae of Nevada. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Conrtributions toward a flora of Nevada. Vol.1 Pinaceae-Cupressaceae. Beltsville, MD. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 96 p. [1948] 42. Richardson, Steven G.; Barker, Jerry R.; Crofts, Kent A.; Van Epps, Gordon A. 1979. Factors affecting root of stem cuttings of salt desert shrubs. Journal of Range Management. 32(4): 280-283. [1975] 43. Rickard, W. H. 1964. Demise of sagebrush through soil changes. Bioscience. 14(1): 43-44. [1976] 44. Rickard, W. H. 1967. Seasonal soil moisture patterns in adjacent greasewood and sagebrush stands. Ecology. 48(6): 1034-1038. [1978] 45. Rickard, W. H.; Keough, R. F. 1968. Soil-plant relationships of two steppe desert shrubs. Plant and Soil. 29(2): 205-211. [1983] 46. Romo, J. T.; Haferkamp, M. R. 1989. Water relations of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis and Sarcobatus vermiculatus in the steppe of southeastern Oregon. American Midland Naturalist. 121: 155-164. [6642] 47. Romo, James T.; Haferkamp, Marshall R. 1987. Effects of osmotic potential, potassium chloride, and sodium chloride on germination of greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus). Great Basin Naturalist. 47(1): 110-116. [2024] 48. Roundy, Bruce A.; Cluff, Greg J.; Young, James A.; Evans, R. A. 1983. Treatment of inland saltgrass and greasewood sites to improve forage production. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy, compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and wildlife habitats: Proceedings of symposia; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 54-66. [2036] 49. Roundy, Bruce A.; Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A. 1981. Phenology of salt rabbitbrush (Chrysothanmus naueseosus ssp. consimilis) and greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus). Weed Science. 29: 448-454. [2037] 50. Sabo, David G.; Johnson, Gordon V.; Martin, William C.; Aldon, Earl F. 1979. Germination requirements of 19 species of arid land plants. Res. Pap. RM-210. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 26 p. [2047] 51. Sampson, Arthur W.; Jespersen, Beryl S. 1963. California range brushlands and browse plants. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, California Agricultural Experiment Station, Extension Service. 162 p. [3240] 52. Shaw, Nancy; Monsen, Stephen B. 1984. Nursery propagation and outplanting of bareroot Chenopod seedlings. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R.; McArthur, E. Durant; Stutz, Howard C.; [and others], compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 251-260. [2123] 53. Smith, Edwin Lamar, Jr. 1966. Soil-vegetation relationships of some Artemisia types in North Park, Colorado. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University. 203 p. Dissertation. [2171] 54. Smith, Michael A.; Dodd, Jerrold L.; Rodgers, J. Daniel. 1985. Prescribed burning on Wyoming rangeland. Bull. 810. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming Agricultural Extension Service. 25 p. [2176] 55. Stubbendieck, J.; Hatch, Stephan L.; Hirsch, Kathie J. 1986. North American range plants. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 465 p. [2270] 56. Stutz, Howard C. 1983. Some promising chenopods for use on disturbed lands. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy, compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and wildlife habitats: Proceedings of symposia; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 132-135. [2283] 57. Turner, Raymond M. 1982. Great Basin desertscrub. In: Brown, David E., ed. Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico. Desert Plants. 4(1-4): 145-155. [2373] 58. Tweit, Susan J.; Houston, Kent E. 1980. Grassland and shrubland habitat types of the Shoshone National Forest. Cody, WY: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Shoshone National Forest. 143 p. [2377] 59. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240] 60. Wagner, Warren L.; Martin, William C.; Aldon, Earl F. 1978. Natural succession on strip-mined lands in northwestern New Mexico. Reclamation Review. 1: 67-73. [2436] 61. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944] 62. Whitson, Tom D., ed. 1987. Weeds and poisonous plants of Wyoming and Utah. Res. Rep. 116-USU. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming, College of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service. 281 p. [2939] 63. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A.; Major, Jack. 1977. Sagebrush steppe. In: Barbour, Michael G.; Major, Jack, eds. Terrestrial vegetation of California. New York: John Wiley & Sons: 763-796. [4300] 64. Young, James A.; Evans, Raymond A.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Cluff, Greg J. 1984. Ecology of seed germination in representative Chenopodiaceae. In: Tiedemann, Arthur R. [and others], compilers. Proceedings--symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods; 1983 May 2-6; Provo, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-172. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 159-165. [2675] 65. Young, Richard P. 1983. Fire as a vegetation management tool in rangelands of the Intermountain Region. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy, compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and wildlife habitats: Proceedings; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 18-31. [2681] 66. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362] 67. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p. [20090] 68. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants of the U.S.--alphabetical listing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 954 p. [23104] 69. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [n.d.]. NP Flora [Data base]. Davis, CA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey. [23119]

Index

Related categories for Species: Sarcobatus vermiculatus | Black Greasewood

Send this page to a friend
Print this Page

Content on this web site is provided for informational purposes only. We accept no responsibility for any loss, injury or inconvenience sustained by any person resulting from information published on this site. We encourage you to verify any critical information with the relevant authorities.

Information Courtesy: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. Fire Effects Information System

About Us | Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy | Links Directory
Link to 1Up Info | Add 1Up Info Search to your site

1Up Info All Rights reserved. Site best viewed in 800 x 600 resolution.