AllRefer.com Reference and Encyclopedia Resource 

AllRefer Channels :: Health | Yellow Pages | | Reference

July 10, 2020  
 Countries
 Flags
 Maps

You are here : AllRefer.com > Reference > World > Countries > Turkmenistan > Turkmenistan - Economy

Turkmenistan: Economy

Economy Turkmenistan
Economy - overview:
Turkmenistan is largely desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and large gas and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton, making it the world's tenth-largest producer. With an authoritarian ex-Communist regime in power and a tribally based social structure, Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. Privatization goals remain limited. In 1998-2003, Turkmenistan suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, total exports rose by 38% in 2003, largely because of higher international oil and gas prices. Overall prospects in the near future are discouraging because of widespread internal poverty, the burden of foreign debt, and the unwillingness of the government to adopt market-oriented reforms. However, Turkmenistan's cooperation with the international community in transporting humanitarian aid to Afghanistan may foreshadow a change in the atmosphere for foreign investment, aid, and technological support. Turkmenistan's economic statistics are state secrets, and GDP and other figures are subject to wide margins of error. In any event, GDP increased substantially in 2003 because of a strong recovery in agriculture and rapid industrial growth.
GDP:
purchasing power parity - $31.34 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
21.1% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $6,700 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 27%
industry: 50%
services: 23% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
34.4% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 31.7% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
40.8 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
2.34 million (1996)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 48%, industry 15%, services 37% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues: $588.6 million
expenditures: $658.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Industries:
natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
1% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
10.18 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 99.9%
hydro: 0.1%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
8.509 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
980 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
20 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
162,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
63,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
273 million bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
48.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
9.6 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
38.6 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
1.43 trillion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
cotton, grain; livestock
Exports:
$2.97 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
gas 57%, oil 26%, cotton fiber 3%, textiles 2% (2001)
Exports - partners:
Ukraine 49.7%, Italy 18%, Iran 13.1%, Turkey 6.2% (2002)
Imports:
$2.25 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment 60%, foodstuffs 15% (1999)
Imports - partners:
Russia 19.8%, Turkey 12.8%, Ukraine 11.7%, UAE 10%, US 7.5%, China 6%, Germany 5.7%, Iran 4.4% (2002)
Debt - external:
$2.4 billion to $5 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$16 million from the US (2001)
Currency:
Turkmen manat (TMM)
Currency code:
TMM
Exchange rates:
Turkmen manats per US dollar - 5,200 (2002), 5,200 (2001), 5,200 (2000), 5,200 (1999), 4,890.17 (1998); note - the official exchange rate has not varied for the last four years; the unofficial rate has fluctuated slightly, hovering around 21,000 manats to the dollar
Fiscal year:
calendar year

Also See:

Background & Country Profile
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational Issues & International Disputes
Map
Flag

 

Source: The CIA World Fact Book 2003

Content on this web site is provided for informational purposes only. We accept no responsibility for any loss, injury or inconvenience sustained by any person resulting from information published on this site. We encourage you to verify any critical information with the relevant authorities.

About Us | Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy  
Copyright 2013 AllRefer.com All Rights reserved.
Site best viewed in 800 x 600 resolution.