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Afghanistan: Economy

Economy Afghanistan
Economy - overview:
Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on foreign aid, farming and livestock raising (sheep and goats), and trade with neighboring countries. Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during more than two decades of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). During that conflict, one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak of 4 to 6 million refugees. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially over the past 20 years because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport; severe drought added to the nation's difficulties in 1998-2002. The majority of the population continues to suffer from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and medical care, and a dearth of jobs, problems exacerbated by political uncertainties and the general level of lawlessness. International efforts to rebuild Afghanistan were addressed at the Tokyo Donors Conference for Afghan Reconstruction in January 2002, when $4.5 billion was pledged, $1.7 billion for 2002. Of that approximately $900 million was directed to humanitarian aid - food, clothing, and shelter - and another $90 million for the Afghan Transitional Authority. Further World Bank and other aid came in 2003. Priority areas for reconstruction include upgrading education, health, and sanitation facilities; providing income generating opportunities; enhancing administrative and security arrangements, especially in regional areas; developing the agricultural sector; rebuilding transportation, energy, and telecommunication infrastructure; and reabsorbing 2 million returning refugees. The replacement of the opium trade - which may account for one-third of GDP - and the search for oil and gas resources in the northern region are two major long-term issues.
GDP:
purchasing power parity - $19 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
NA%
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $700 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 60%
industry: 20%
services: 20% (1990 est.)
Population below poverty line:
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Labor force:
10 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 80%, industry 10%, services 10% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues: $200 million
expenditures: $550 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2003 plan est.)
Industries:
small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper
Industrial production growth rate:
NA%
Electricity - production:
334.8 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 36.3%
hydro: 63.7%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
511.4 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
200 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
3,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
220 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
220 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
49.98 billion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
opium, wheat, fruits, nuts, wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins
Exports:
$1.2 billion (not including illicit exports) (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
Exports - partners:
Pakistan 26.8%, India 26.5%, Finland 5.8%, Germany 5.1%, UAE 4.4%, Belgium 4.3%, Russia 4.2%, US 4.2% (2002)
Imports:
$1.3 billion (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
Pakistan 25.1%, South Korea 14.4%, Japan 9.4%, US 9%, Kenya 5.8%, Germany 5.4% (2002)
Debt - external:
NA (1996 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
international pledges made by more than 60 countries and international financial institutions at the Tokyo Donors Conference for Afghan reconstruction in January 2002 reached $4.5 billion through 2006, with $1.8 billion allocated for 2002; another $1.7 billion was pledged for 2003.
Currency:
afghani (AFA)
Currency code:
AFA
Exchange rates:
afghanis per US dollar - 3,000 (October-December 2002), 3,000 (2001), 3,000 (2000), 3,000 (1999), 3,000 (1998), note: before 2002 the market rate varied widely from the official rate; in 2002 the afghani was revalued and the currency stabilized
Fiscal year:
21 March - 20 March

Also See:

Background & Country Profile
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational Issues & International Disputes
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Source: The CIA World Fact Book 2003

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