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Indonesia: Economy

Economy Indonesia
Economy - overview:
Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, faces severe economic development problems stemming from secessionist movements and the low level of security in the regions; the lack of reliable legal recourse in contract disputes; corruption; weaknesses in the banking system; and strained relations with the IMF. Investor confidence will remain low and few new jobs will be created under these circumstances. In November 2001, Indonesia agreed with the IMF on a series of economic reforms in 2002, thus enabling further IMF disbursements. Negotiations with the IMF and bilateral donors continued in 2002. Keys to future growth remain internal reform, the build-up of the confidence of international donors and investors, and a strong comeback in the global economy.
GDP:
purchasing power parity - $714.2 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.7% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $3,100 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 17%
industry: 41%
services: 42% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
27% (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.7% (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
31.7 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.9% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
99 million (1999)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
10.6% (2002 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $26 billion
expenditures: $30 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Industries:
petroleum and natural gas; textiles, apparel, and footwear; mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood; rubber; food; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
4.9% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
95.78 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 86.9%
hydro: 10.5%
other: 2.5% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
89.08 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
1.451 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
1.045 million bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
7.083 billion bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
69 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
36.2 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
32.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
2.549 trillion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs
Exports:
$52.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partners:
Japan 21.1%, US 13.2%, Singapore 9.4%, South Korea 7.2%, China 5.1%, Taiwan 4.2% (2002)
Imports:
$32.1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment; chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Japan 14.1%, Singapore 13.1%, US 8.5%, China 7.8%, South Korea 5.3%, Taiwan 5.1%, Australia 5.1% (2002)
Debt - external:
$131 billion (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$43 billion from IMF program and other official external financing (1997-2000)
Currency:
Indonesian rupiah (IDR)
Currency code:
IDR
Exchange rates:
Indonesian rupiahs per US dollar - 9,311.19 (2002), 10,260.8 (2001), 8,421.77 (2000), 7,855.15 (1999), 10,013.6 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year; note - previously was 1 April - 31 March, but starting with 2001, has been changed to calendar year

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Background & Country Profile
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Economy
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Source: The CIA World Fact Book 2003

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