AllRefer.com Reference and Encyclopedia Resource 

AllRefer Channels :: Health | Yellow Pages | | Reference

December 22, 2014  
 Countries
 Flags
 Maps

You are here : AllRefer.com > Reference > World > Countries > Serbia and Montenegro > Serbia and Montenegro - Economy

Serbia and Montenegro: Economy

Economy Serbia and Montenegro
Economy - overview:
MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the war in Kosovo have left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. Since the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in October 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government has implemented stabilization measures and embarked on an aggressive market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). A World Bank-European Commission sponsored Donors' Conference held in June 2001 raised $1.3 billion for economic restructuring. An agreement rescheduling the country's $4.5 billion Paris Club government debts was concluded in November 2001; it will write off 66% of the debt; a similar debt relief agreement on its $2.8 billion London Club commercial debt is still pending. The smaller republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and continues to maintain its own central bank, uses the euro instead of the Yugoslav dinar as official currency, collects customs tariffs, and manages its own budget. Kosovo, while technically still part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (now Serbia and Montenegro) according to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, is moving toward local autonomy under United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and is dependent on the international community for financial and technical assistance. The euro and the Yugoslav dinar are official currencies, and UNMIK collects taxes and manages the budget. The complexity of Serbia and Montenegro political relationships, slow progress in privatization, and stagnation in the European economy are holding back the economy. Arrangements with the IMF, especially requirements for fiscal discipline, are an important element in policy formation. Severe unemployment remains a key political economic problem.
GDP:
purchasing power parity - $23.15 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $2,200 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 26%
industry: 36%
services: 38% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
30%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
19% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
3 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate:
32% (2002 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $3.9 billion
expenditures: $4.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Industries:
machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone); consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances); electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate:
1.7% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
31.71 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 62.9%
hydro: 37.1%
other: 0% (2001)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
32.37 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
446 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
3.33 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
15,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
64,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
38.75 million bbl (37257)
Natural gas - production:
602 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
602 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
24.07 billion cu m (37257)
Agriculture - products:
cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep, goats
Exports:
$2.4 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports - commodities:
manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials
Exports - partners:
Italy 32%, Germany 19.5%, Greece 7%, Austria 6.1%, France 4.6% (2002)
Imports:
$6.3 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
Imports - partners:
Germany 19.4%, Italy 18%, Austria 8.5%, Slovenia 5.6%, Greece 4.4%, France 4.3%, Bulgaria 4.2%, Romania 4.1% (2002)
Debt - external:
$9.2 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$2 billion pledged in 2001 (disbursements to follow for several years)
Currency:
new Yugoslav dinar (YUM); note - in Montenegro the euro is legal tender; in Kosovo both the euro and the Yugoslav dinar are legal (2002)
Currency code:
YUM
Exchange rates:
new Yugoslav dinars per US dollar - official rate: 65 (2002), 10.0 (December 1998); black market rate: 14.5 (December 1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

Also See:

Background & Country Profile
Geography
People
Government
Economy
Communications
Transportation
Military
Transnational Issues & International Disputes
Map
Flag

 

Source: The CIA World Fact Book 2003

Content on this web site is provided for informational purposes only. We accept no responsibility for any loss, injury or inconvenience sustained by any person resulting from information published on this site. We encourage you to verify any critical information with the relevant authorities.

About Us | Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy  
Copyright 2013 AllRefer.com All Rights reserved.
Site best viewed in 800 x 600 resolution.