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Ethiopia

 
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Appendix
Ethiopia: Table 1. Metric Conversion Coofficients and Factors

When you kowMultiply byTo find
Millimeters0.04inches
Centimeters0.39inches
Meters3.3feet
Kilometers0.62miles
Hectares2.47acres
Square kilometers0.39square miles
Cubic meters35.3cubic feet
Liters0.26gallons
Kilograms2.2pounds
Metric tons0.98long tons
1.1short tons
2,204pounds
Degrees Celsius (Centigrade)1.8 and add 32degrees Fahrenheit

Table 2. Population by Urban-Rural Breakdown and by Region and Addis Ababa, May 1988

RegionUrbanRuralTotal
Arsi127,5471,733,0591,860,606
Bale79,1591,047,5381,126,697
Eritrea440,8752,497,2382,938,113
Gamo Gofa61,0151,334,3161,395,331
Gojam252,0423,380,2343,632,276
Gonder239,0103,031,4303,270,440
Harerge321,2024,336,6574,657,859
Ilubabor59,4541,018,8541,078,308
Kefa145,2052,595,5682,740,773
Shewa701,2948,358,6239,059,917
Sidamo267,0933,974,7344,241,827
Tigray261,8902,439,0312,700,921
Welega141,0432,629,5552,770,598
Welo264,6973,811,2624,075,959
Aseb Administration*36,34865,004101,352
Addis Ababa*1,654,327n.a.1,654,327
TOTAL5,052,20142,253,10347,305,304

n.a.--not applicable.

* In 1988 Aseb and Addis Ababa were both separate administrative divisions.

Source: Based on information from Ethiopia, Central Statistical Authority, Census Supplement, I, Addis Ababa, 1989, Table 1-2.

Table 3. Area, Population, and Population Density by Region and Addis Ababa, 1975 and 1987

RegionArea (in thousands of square kilometers)Population (in thousands)Population Density (persons per square kilometer)
1975198719751987
Arsi23.71,337.81,808.556.476.3
Bale127.1810.71,095.16.48.6
Eritrea93.72,107.92,852.922.530.4
Gamo Gofa40.31,005.31,356.724.933.7
Gojam61.22,612.43,530.542.757.7
Gonder79.62,350.13,178.729.539.9
Harerge272.63,348.54,527.412.316.6
Ilubabor46.5775.61,048.316.722.5
Kefa56.61,971.52,664.634.847.1
Shewa85.16,512.08,805.376.5103.5
Sidamo119.73,052.44,123.325.534.4
Tigray64.91,938.92,624.429.940.4
Welega70.51,993.12,693.628.338.2
Welo82.12,931.73,962.035.748.3
Aseb Administration127.573.898.22.73.6
Addis Ababa20.21,136.61,589.25,683.67,946.0
ETHIOPIA1,251.333,958.345,958.727.136.7

1 Aseb Administration was carved out of southern Eritrea and made into a separate administrative division in 1981.
2 Addis Ababa was part of Shewa in 1975 but is listed separately for comparative purposes. By 1981 Addis Ababa had become an administrative division of its own.

Source: Based on information from Ethiopia, Central Statistical Authority, Facts and Figures, Addis Ababa, 1987, Table 7-1, 22.

Table 4. Population of Largest Cities and Towns, 1967, 1975, and 1987

City or Town196719751987
Addis Ababa644,1901,136,6001,589,176
Asmera178,537221,801309,807
Dire Dawa50,73376,639107,150
Harer42,77148,55967,892
Dese40,61956,84979,458
Gonder36,30964,56290,220
Jima30,58049,04468,618
Nazret27,81259,17682,725
Mekele23,10547,15765,581
Debre Zeyit22,05539,67555,461
Debre Markos21,53631,84244,410
Asela13,88629,63741,313
Nekemte12,69123,34232,637
Bahir Dar12,46343,82661,121
Dila11,28718,89826,392
Aseb10,94525,00039,917
Akaki10,92442,00258,717
Sodo10,84219,41427,116
Debre Birhan9,18819,97827,929
Agaro8,99515,09021,107
Shashemene7,83724,45934,193
Goba7,30418,51525,835
Awasa5,57527,51739,827
Metu4,06010,05714,042
Jijiga4,03118,11125,320
Arba Minch2,89014,26126,711
Wonjin.a.n.a.38,408
Kerenn.a.n.a.29,416

n.a.--not available.

Source: Based on information from Ethiopia, Central Statistical Authority, Ethiopia: Statistical Abstract, 1967 and 1968, Addis Ababa, 1969, 30-36; and Ethiopia, Central Statistical Authority, Facts and Figures, Addis Ababa, 1987, 25-28.

Table 5. Number of Schools by Grade Level and by Region and Addis Ababa, Ethiopian Calendar Years 1974-75 and 1985-861

1974-751985- 86
RegionGrades 1-6Grades 7- 8Grades 9-12Grades 1-6Grades 7- 8Grades 9-12
Arsi1351933334314
Bale8381310185
Eritrea42866142255518
Gamo Gofa7783323185
Gojam1351446765817
Gonder1842145783318
Harerge2144776596513
Ilubabor1371444053510
Kefa93113499409
Shewa538100251,44324650
Sidamo1483167865613
Tigray178197822411
Welega463281072310015
Welo1582336494515
Aseb Administration2n.a.n.a.n.a.1211
Addis Ababa3225983019712731
TOTAL3,1965071247,900964245

n.a.--not available.
1 For explanation of the Ethiopian calendar year--see Glossary.
2 Aseb Administration was carved out of southern Eritrea and made into a separate administrative division in 1981.
3 Addis Ababa was part of Shewa in 1974 but is listed separately for comparative purposes. By 1981 Addis Ababa had become an administrative division of its own.

Source: Based on information from Ethiopia, Central Statistical Authority, Facts and Figures, Addis Ababa, 1987, Table 16-3, 107.

Table 6. Number of Students by Grade Level and Sex, Ethiopian Calendar Years 1974-75 and 1985- 86*

1974-751985- 86
Grade LevelMaleFemaleTotal MaleFemaleTotal
Grades 1-6651,893305,408957,3011,491,015957,7632,448,778
Grades 7-885,28639,298124,584221,102142,030363,132
Grades 9-1247,43916,77464,213178,699113,686292,385
University5237259516,4381,99818,436
TOTAL785,141361,5521,146,6931,907,2541,215,4773,122,731

* For explanation of the Ethiopian calendar year--see Glossary.

Source: Based on information from Ethiopia, Central Statistical Authority, Facts and Figures, Addis Ababa, 1987, Table 61-1, 105.

Table 7. Number of Teachers by Grade Level and by Region and Addis Ababa, Ethiopian Calendar Years 1974-75 and 1985-861

1974-751985-86
RegionGrades 1-6Grades 7- 8Grades 9-12Grades 1-6Grades 7- 8Grades 9-12
Arsi874126662,864373311
Bale51453242,050210191
Eritrea2,3074803552,471561604
Gamo Gofa60564392,155167197
Gojam1,1241671003,415430413
Gonder1,104148712,919321367
Harerge1,3842421533,444411362
Ilubabor73992322,463207182
Kefa678109553,190172265
Shewa3,0946133576,8561,3091,277
Sidamo1,3412381105,234641578
Tigray3,1051751521,879280302
Welega1,7091771484,238526508
Welo1,187172963,542371487
Aseb Administration2n.a.n.a.n.a.1281422
Addis Ababa33,0868527704,0741,3221,837
TOTAL22,8513,7082,52850,9227,3157,903

n.a.--not available.
1 For explanation of the Ethiopian calendar year--see Glossary.
2 Aseb Administration was carved out of southern Eritrea and made into a separate administrative division in 1981.
3 Addis Ababa was part of Shewa in 1974 but is listed separately for comparative purposes. By 1981 Addis Ababa had become an administrative division of its own.

Source: Based on information from Ethiopia, Central Statistical Authority, Facts and Figures, Addis Ababa, 1987, Table 16-2, 108.

Table 8. Medical Facilities by Region and Addis Ababa, Ethiopian Calendar Years 1975-76 and 1983- 841

HospitalsHospital Beds2ClinicsHealth Centers
Region1975-761983-841975- 761983-841975-761983-841975- 761983-84
Arsi22121176459646
Bale1195140347945
Eritrea317162,3242,89512116335
Gamo Gofa33137151497547
Gojam332422854710478
Gonder103191438511121213
Harerge2108288871111501013
Ilubabor22163140517957
Kefa332302266110269
Shewa11105908821222651518
Sidamo5541946989145810
Tigray442985706410299
Welega4429733778164710
Welo45189454701441214
Addis Ababa413142,4993,25716129n.a.7
TOTAL84858,62311,3071,0091,909106141

n.a.--not available.
1 For explanation of the Ethiopian calendar year--see Glossary. Table does not include police and armed forces facilities.
2 Does not include number of beds in three hospitals.
3 Includes Aseb Administration, which was carved out of southern Eritrea and made into a separate administrative division in 1981.
4 Addis Ababa was part of Shewa in 1975-76 but is listed separately for comparative purposes. By 1981 Addis Ababa had become an administrative division of its own.

Source: Based on information from Ethiopia, Central Statistical Authority, Facts and Figures, Addis Ababa, 1987, Table 17-1, 110.

Table 9. Medical Personnel by Region and Addis Ababa, Ethiopian Calendar Years 1974-75 and 1983- 841

PhysiciansNursesHeal th Assistants
Region1974-751983-841974- 751983-841974-751983-84
Arsi5122440149269
Bale71374634158
Eritrea3050129199486654
Gamo Gofa441846107200
Gojam10153881173337
Gonder8303687172367
Harerge253863109314470
Ilubabor682234101190
Kefa17153181120341
Shewa203595196562985
Sidamo92347112247522
Tigray7134265212286
Welega102054101210495
Welo5223178193426
Aseb Administration2224441611166
Addis Ababa31652445236521,0831,114
TOTAL3505461,2711,9034,2746,880

1 For explanation of the Ethiopian calendar year--see Glossary. Table does not include police and armed forces personnel.
2 Aseb Administration was carved out of southern Eritrea and made into a separate administrative division in 1981.
3 Addis Ababa was part of Shewa in 1974-75 but is listed separately for comparative purposes. By 1981 Addis Ababa had become an administrativedivision ofits own.

Source: Based on information from Ethiopia, Central Statistical Authority, Facts and Figures, Addis Ababa, 1987, Table 17-4, 114-15.

Table 10. Key Economic Indicators, Ethiopian Fiscal Years, 1974-75 to 1988-891

Phase and YearGDP2Agriculture3 Manufacturing3Current Account Deficit4Overall Fiscal Deficit4Retail Price Index5Debt Service Ratio6
Phase I--Revolution
1974-750.0- 1.8-1.63.04.16.57.3
1975-761.73.00.80.35.428.67.2
1976-771.10.12.32.73.916.66.4
1977-78-1.3- 1.5-3.95.16.814.36.7
Average0.40.4-0.32.85.116.56.9
Phase II--Economic
zemecha7
1978-795.72.427.34.23.416.011.0
1979-805.74.810.55.75.14.57.6
Average5.73.618.94.63.810.39.3
Phase III--Decline
1980-813.12.65.66.84.56.17.5
1981-821.2- 1.34.68.88.25.613.7
1982-835.34.77.37.016.1- 0.417.8
1983-84-3.6- 9.93.88.68.98.419.9
1984-85-7.0- 16.31.68.115.819.119.2
Average-0.2- 4.15.27.910.77.815.6
Phase IV--Stagnation
1985-866.79.25.38.911.6- 9.823.4
1986-879.014.45.910.99.9- 2.429.5
1987-883.6- 0.22.211.69.67.138.6
1988-8982.92.71.711.122.7n.a.33.8
1989-9082.9-1.9-2.1n.a.n.a.n.a.51.68
Average5.04.83.310.613.5- 1.735.4

n.a.--not available.
1 For explanation of the Ethiopian fiscal year--see Glossary.
2 GDP--gross domestic product; percentage growth per annum.
3 Contribution to GDP; percentage growth per annum.
4 As a percentage of GDP.
5 Percentage increase.
6 As a percentage of exports.
7 For definition of zemecha--see Glossary.
8 Estimated.

Source: Based on information from Ethiopia, Office of the National Council for Central Planning, National Accounts Division, Addis Ababa, various publications; Ethiopia, Central Statistical Authority, Ethiopia: Statistical Abstract, Addis Ababa, various issues; and World Bank, Washington, various publications.

Table 11. Average Annual Income, Retail Price Index, and Real Income, Selected Ethiopian Calendar Years, 1970-71 to 1987-881

Retail Price IndexReal Income
YearAverage Annual Income2Index3Percentage Change over Previous YearIncomePercentage Change over Previous Year
1970-711,125143.7n.a.783n.a.
1974-751,577170.118.492718.4
1980-812,298375.2120.6612-34.0
1981-822,352396.15.6594-2.9
1982-832,530394.5-0.46417.9
1983-842,540427.88.4594-7.3
1984-852,745509.419.1537-9.3
1985-862,793459.4-9.860812.8
1986-872,990448.3-2.46678.8
1987-883,107480.07.1647-3.0

1 For explanation of the Ethiopian calendar year--see Glossary.
2 Wages and salaries of industrial workers; in birr (for value of the birr--see Glossary).
3 1963=100.

Source: Based on information from Ethiopia, Central Statistical Authority, Ethiopia: Statistical Abstract, Addis Ababa, various issues; and Ethiopia, Central Statistical Authority, Annual Survey of Manufacturing Industries, Addis Ababa, various issues.

Table 12. Retail Price Index for Addis Ababa, Selected Ethiopian Calendar Years, 1970-71 to 1987- 881

YearGeneral Index2FoodHousehold ItemsClothingTransportation
1970-71143.7155.4133.5141.3100.0
1974-75170.1175.1179.8190.6104.8
1980-81375.2441.2366.1281.3140.6
1981-82396.1467.6379.3279.3153.5
1982-83394.5470.7352.6273.5156.4
1983-84427.8522.8376.1272.8154.9
1984-85509.4654.7406.8268.2156.4
1985-86459.4553.1436.9273.2156.9
1986-87448.3521.3479.4271.4162.7
1987-88480.0562.4506.9275.1164.8

1 For explanation of the Ethiopian calendar year--see Glossary.
2 1963=100.

Source: Based on information from Ethiopia, Central Statistical Authority, Ethiopia: Statistical Abstract, Addis Ababa, various issues.

Table 13. Production of Major Crops, Selected Ethiopian Calendar Years, 1974-75 to 1988- 891

(in thousands of tons)
Crop1974-751980-811984- 851985-861986-871987-881988- 89
Cereals
Barley624.91,075.2842.1913.9993.2995.31,075.0
Corn840.8948.21,087.81,037.01,715.41,819.52,001.5
Millet156.7204.4187.4189.9119.8n.a.n.a.
Oatsn.a.46.427.431.536.4n.a.n.a.
Sorghum630.51,410.8507.2904.5963.2993.31,112.6
Teff2847.91,312.1912.2968.71,033.21,049.61,182.0
Wheat698.9613.2675.6774.4775.3835.8894.3
Total cereals23,799.75,610.44,239.84,820.05,636.45,949.5 6,544.5
Pulses
Broad beans282.1469.3265.9233.3293.5259.2n.a.
Chick-peas93.4118.392.384.472.2n.a.n.a.
Field peas44.7147.784.469.383.5n.a.n.a.
Haricot32.819.726.923.333.3n.a.n.a.
Lentils46.659.918.925.926.9n.a.n.a.
Soybeansn.a.1.90.50.30.6n.a.n.a.
Vetch12.631.341.730.9n.a.n.a.n.a.
Total pulses2512.2848.0530.6467.4540.8562.9619.2
Other
Fenugreekn.a.2.54.70.12.4n.a.n.a.
Flaxseed18.927.233.938.331.127.2n.a.
Groundnuts (peanuts)n.a.n.a.0.20.40.6n.a.n.a.
Niger seed (neug)26.664.161.859.545.543.9n.a.
Rapeseedn.a.1.51.62.04.1n.a.n.a.
Sesamen.a.6.50.10.20.10.4n.a.
Sunflower seedn.a.0.21.30.90.6n.a.n.a.
Total other358.1102.1102.6101.484.587.396.0
TOTAL34,370.06,560.64,873.05,388.86,261.76,599.77,259.7

n.a.--not available.
1 For explanation of the Ethiopian calender year--see Glossary.
2 For definition of teff--see Glossary.
3 Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.

Source: Based on information from Ethiopia, Central Statistical Authority, Area, Production, and Yield of Major Crops Estimates, Addis Ababa, various issues.

Table 14. Value of Principal Exports, Selected Ethiopian Fiscal Years, 1974-75 to 1988- 891

(in millions of birr)2
Product1974-751980-811984- 851985-861986-871987-881988- 893
Coffee117.5524.3466.3664.8524.3439.2525.4
Oilseeds89.128.415.67.99.822.012.8
Pulses73.523.716.912.68.516.117.0
Hides and skins37.292.795.4119.5108.3133.0140.0
Live animals16.99.819.718.215.632.430.0
Meat, canned and frozen9.96.33.93.95.45.15.4
Fruits and vegetables9.83.65.96.012.811.815.6
Raw cotton8.028.21.80.01.61.11.0
Petroleum products7.476.167.344.227.336.030.6
Oilseed cake7.28.81.02.01.71.11.0
Sugar46.89.89.310.412.616.416.5
Other562.039.440.233.866.959.4106.8
Reexports30.90.40.00.50.00.0n.a.
TOTAL476.2851.5743.3923.8794.8773.6902.1

n.a.--not available.
1 For explanation of the Ethiopian fiscal year--see Glossary.
2 For value of the birr--see Glossary.
3 Estimated.
4 Primarily molasses.
5 Includes 26.7 million birr of nonmonetary gold in 1979-80.

Source: Based on information from National Bank of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, various publications.

Table 15. Balance of Payments, Selected Ethiopian Fiscal Years, 1980-81 to 1988-891

(in millions of United States dollars)
1980-811984-851985-861986- 871987-881988-89
Exports554.1548.9662.2616.1629.2735.0
Imports770.5962.21,192.01,217.01,259.01,345.5
Trade balance-216.4-413.3-529.8-600.9-629.8-610.5
Factor services (net)-7.1-33.0-28.8- 37.0-63.0- 94.2
Private transfers (net)24.7144.9209.4162.5182.6195.6
Official transfers (net)259.8298.3293.2211.8121.7132.0
Current account balance- 139.0-3.1-56.0-263.6-388.5-377.1
Private loans (net)30.00.00.00.00.00.0
Public loans (net)3161.6162.3277.2181.3260.4280.7
Short-term capital (net)-6.042.3-12.89.79.70.0
Capital account balance16.6201.5208.4- 72.6-118.4- 96.4
Errors and omissions108.9153.943.3- 52.771.3- 123.6
Overall balance125.5355.4251.7- 125.3-47.1- 220.0
Change in net reserves (-means increase)59.2-47.6- 165.219.9 189.7-27.2

1 For explanation of the Ethiopian fiscal year--see Glossary.
2 Excludes technical assistance and similar transfers recorded in government budget.
3 Includes medium- and long-term loans.

Source: Based on information from National Bank of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, various publications.

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