You are here -allRefer - Reference - Country Study & Country Guide - Ghana >

allRefer Reference and Encyclopedia Resource

allRefer    
allRefer
   


-- Country Study & Guide --     

 

Ghana

 
Country Guide
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Armenia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belize
Bhutan
Bolivia
Brazil
Bulgaria
Cambodia
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Caribbean Islands
Comoros
Cyprus
Czechoslovakia
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
Georgia
Germany
Germany (East)
Ghana
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Cote d'Ivoire
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Laos
Lebanon
Libya
Lithuania
Macau
Madagascar
Maldives
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Nepal
Nicaragua
Nigeria
North Korea
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Romania
Russia
Saudi Arabia
Seychelles
Singapore
Somalia
South Africa
South Korea
Soviet Union [USSR]
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Syria
Tajikistan
Thailand
Turkmenistan
Turkey
Uganda
United Arab Emirates
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela
Vietnam
Yugoslavia
Zaire

Appendix A. Tables

Table 1. Metric Conversion Coofficients and Factors

When you kowMultiply byTo find
Millimeters0.04inches
Centimeters0.39inches
Meters3.3feet
Kilometers0.62miles
Hectares2.47acres
Square kilometers0.39square miles
Cubic meters35.3cubic feet
Liters0.26gallons
Kilograms2.2pounds
Metric tons0.98long tons
1.1short tons
2,204pounds
Degrees Celsius (Centigrade)1.8 and add 32degrees Fahrenheit

Table 2. Population Distribution by Region, 1960, 1970, and 19841

(in thousands)
Region196019701984
Ashanti1,109.11,481.72,090.1
Brong-Ahafo587.9766.51,206.6
Central751.4890.11,142.3
Eastern777.31,209.81,680.9
Greater Accra491.82903.41,431.1
Northern531.6727.61,164.6
Upper East---3542.9772.7
Upper West757.33319.9438.0
Volta1,094.2947.31,211.9
Western626.2770.11,157.8
TOTAL6,726.88,559.312,296.0

1 Latest available data. Ghana's 1993 population is estimated at 16.7 million, but no regional breakdown is available.
2 Represents only Accra administrative area. The rest of what is now Greater Accra Region was part of Eastern Region in 1960.
3 In 1960 Upper East and Upper West regions were combined in Upper Region.

Source: Based on information from Ghana, Monthly Economic Bulletin, Accra, 3, May 1970, 2; Ghana, Statistical Service, Quarterly Digest of Statistics, Accra, December 1991, Table 95; and United States, Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, Washington, 1993, 147.

Table 3. Population Density, Growth Rate, and Rural-Urban Distribution by Region, 1970-84

Population Density1 Population Distribution3
RegionArea419701984Gr owth Rate2RuralUrban
Ashanti24,38961862.567.532.5
Brong-Ahafo39,55719313.373.426.6
Central9,826911161.871.228.8
Eastern19,32363872.472.327.7
Greater Accra3,2452784413.317.083.0
Northern70,38410173.474.825.2
Upper East8,84261872.687.112.9
Upper West18,47617242.389.110.9
Volta20,57046591.879.520.5
Western23,92132483.077.422.6
GHANA238,53336522.668.032.0

1 In square kilometers.
2 Persons per square kilometer.
3 Average annual compound rate for 1970-84 period, in percentages.
4 In percentages, for 1984; towns with 5,000 or more inhabitants.

Source: Based on information from Ghana, Statistical Service, Quarterly Digest of Statistics, Accra, December 1991, Tables 94, 95, and 96.

Table 4. Medical and Paramedical Personnel in Government Institutions by Region, 19891

RegionPhysiciansMedical AssistantsDentistsDental AssistantsNurses2Nurses3 MidwivesPharmacistsDispensary Assistants
Ashanti2435231633791365108
Brong-Ahafo1923256570374362
Central163755226730103474
Eastern5041463181,2402874135
Greater Accra603912141,0781,13833510123
Northern1836---3275544110644
Upper East1517---410941490247
Upper West916------ 138283131327
Volta353025277901156669
Western43404839456389576
Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital41211593062921701147
Korle-Bu Hospital4218---3864962355862
TOTAL62831539703,9987,8101,73667874

---means negligible.
1 Latest available data. Figures do not include medical personnel working in quasi-governmental institutions.
2 Includes registered nurses and nurse anesthetists.
3 Includes community health nurses.
4 Korle-Bu Hospital in Accra and Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi are both teaching hospitals.

Source: Based on information from Ghana, Statistical Service, Quarterly Digest of Statistics, Accra, December 1991, Table 85.

Table 5. Enrollment and Gender Breakdown by Education Level, Selected Academic Years, 1980-81 to 1990- 91

Education Level1980-811985- 861989-901990-91
Student EnrollmentGender Breakdown1Student EnrollmentGender Breakdown1Student EnrollmentGender Breakdown1Student EnrollmentGender Breakdown1
Primary
Males766,40656718,17355939,01055991,87755
Females611,32844577,72745764,06445811,27145
Total primary1,377,7341001,295,9001001,703,0741001,803,148100
Middle2
Males316,06360315,2535862,11760------
Females213,63240224,6704240,95140------
Total middle529,695100539,923100103,068100------
Junior secondary2
Males------ ------366,83059377,10862
Females------ ------258,18841232,23538
Total junior secondary------------ 625,018100609,343100
Senior secondary
Males78,0176989,22069112,54267133,58167
Females35,1403140,7873155,4583365,67933
Total senior secondary113,157100130,007100168,000100199,260100
Polytechnics3
Males------ 7,20347248,40373n.a.n.a.
Females------ 2,78542843,06527n.a.n.a.
Total polytechnics------9,9884100411,468100n.a.n.a.
University of Ghana
Males3,098842,807813,269813,07676
Females60716645197711997624
Total University of Ghana3,7051003,4521004,0401004,052100
University of Science and Technology
Males2,432862,702842,902833,09982
Females38414500165751769718
Total University of Science and Technology2,8161003,2021003,4771003,796100
University of Cape Coast
Males1,139811,259821,38780n.a.n.a.
Females266192801834720n.a.n.a.
Total University of Cape Coast1,4051001,5391001,734100n.a.n.a.
Total university enrollment
Males6,669846,768837,558816,1755795
Females1,257161,425171,693191,673521
Total university enrollment7,9261008,1931009,2511007,84851005

n.a.--not available.
1 In percentages.
2 As a result of education reforms of the mid-1980s, middle schools were phased out and junior secondary schools were phased in.
3 Full-time and part-time students.
4 1986-87 figures.
5 Enrollment in the University of Ghana and in the University of Science and Technology only.

Source: Based on information from Ghana, Statistical Service, Quarterly Digest of Statistics, Accra, December 1991, Tables 69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, and 77; and World Bank, various sources.

Table 6. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at Market Prices, Selected Years, 1986-921

1986198819901992
Total GDP (in billions of cedis)2
At current prices5111,0512,0323,009
At constant 1987 prices713787854934
Real change (in percentages)5.15.53.33.9
In billions of United States dollars4.625.115.556.06
Per capital GDP (in thousands of cedis)
At current prices38.874.8135.5188.5
At constant 1987 prices54.256.056.958.5
Real change (in percentages)1.72.20.00.9
In United States dollars352364369380

1 Latest available data.
2 For value of the cedi--see Glossary.

Source: Based on information from Ghana, Statistical Service, Quarterly Digest of Statistics, Accra, December 1991, Table 87; and Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Ghana, 1994-95, London, 1994, 16.

Table 7. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by Sector, 1983 and 19911

19831991
SectorValue2Percentage Value2Percentage
Agriculture
Agriculture and livestock92,04750.0873,49333.9
Cocoa production and marketing10,2275.6244,6029.5
Forestry and logging5,6093.099,9863.9
Fishing2,0441.133,9421.3
Total agriculture109,92759.71,252,02448.6
Industry
Mining and quarrying1,9441.145,5871.8
Manufacturing7,1013.9225,0788.7
Electricity and water3580.251,9502.0
Construction2,7961.589,1953.5
Total industry12,1996.6411,81116.0
Services
Transportation and communications7,6634.2114,6884.5
Wholesale and retail trade43,12023.4442,78717.2
Finance and insurance3,3111.8107,3914.2
Government and other8,6704.7243,4569.4
Total services62,76434.1908,32235.3
Less imputed bank service charges- 2,259-1.2-35,461-1.4
Import duties1,4070.838,0771.5
GDP at market prices184,038100.02,574,774100.0

1 Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.
2 At current prices, in millions of cedis (for value of the cedi--see Glossary).

Source: Based on information from Ghana, Statistical Service, Quarterly Digest of Statistics, Accra, 1987, Table 74; and Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Ghana, 1994-95, London, 1994, 15.

Table 8. External Debt, Selected Years, 1986- 921

(in millions of United States dollars)
1986198819901992
External debt
Long-term1,7542,2142,7053,131
Short-term18772312404
IMF credit2786762745740
Total external debt2,7263,0483,7614,275
Public disbursed debt
Official creditors1,4641,8922,4832,894
Private creditors252290189202
Total public disbursed debt1,7162,1822,6723,096
Debt service
Principal112424250185
Interest111128105115
Total debt service232552356300

1 Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.
2 IMF--International Monetary Fund.

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Ghana, 1994-95, London, 1994, 34.

Table 9. Public Finance, Selected Years, 1988- 941

(in millions of cedis)
1988199019921994
Revenue153,791267,347400,0001,078,069
Current expenditure-111,004-198,193-283,000-742,376
Balance42,78769,154117,000335,693
Development expenditure-32,893-56,280-157,000-174,200
Net lending2-5,983-9,487n.a.- 93,457
Overall balance3,9113,387n.a.68,036
Financing
Domestic-6,166- 27,977n.a.- 151,813
External2,25524,590n.a.83,777

n.a.--not available.
1 For value of the cedi--see Glossary.
2 Net loans, advances, and investment in public boards, corporations, and companies.

Source: Based on information from Ghana, Statistical Service, Quarterly Digest of Statistics, Accra, December 1991, Table 33; and Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Ghana, 1994-95, London, 1994, 28.

Table 10. Balance of Payments, Selected Years, 1986-941

(in millions of United States dollars)
1986198819901992 19942
Merchandise exports7738818919861,246
Merchandise imports-713-993-1,199- 1,457-1,760
Trade balance61- 112-308-470-514
Exports of services457893129n.a.
Imports of services-344-400-429- 505n.a.
Net private transfers72172202255n.a.
Net official transfers123196214214n.a.
Current account balance-43-66-228- 378-190
Direct investment451522n.a.
Other capital59204310299n.a.
Capital account balance63209325321n.a.

n.a.--not available.
1 Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.
2 Estimated.

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Ghana, 1993-94, London, 1993, 32; Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Report: Ghana [London], No. 3, 1994, 6; and Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Ghana, 1994-95, London, 1994, 32.

Table 11. Major Political Parties and Military Regimes, 1897-1994

PeriodDescription
1897-1920sBritish West Africa Aborigine Rights Protection Society. Founded by small urban elite to protect property rights from British encroachment. Became a limited vehicle for later tribal leader protest as well.
1920s National Congress of British West Africa. Regional educated elites' first effort to influence British to provide some elected voice for Africans.
1947-55 United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC). Postwar party of educated Africans demanding a voice in the government. Brought Kwame Nkrumah back from England as its secretary.
1949-66 Convention People's Party (CPP). Founded by Nkrumah. Served as main force for independence, then as his vehicle to power and rule. Abolished by 1966 coup.
1954-56 National Liberation Movement (NLM). Conservative, federalist opposition to CPP in crucial 1956 election. Largely Asante-based. Joined United Party (UP).
1955-1960sUnited Party (UP). Led by K.A. Busia. Unified NLM and other CPP opponents as CPP's primary opposition. Gradually crushed by the government.
1966-70 National Liberation Council (NLC). Name adopted by army and police leaders of coup that overthrew Nkrumah. Dedicated to a return to democratic civilian rule.
1969-72 Progress Party (PP). Led by Busia and consisting of former UP supporters. Won 1969 election. Lost support of people and army through efforts to impose order on country's economy.
National Alliance of Liberals (NAL). Led by K.A. Gbedemah and consisting of other followers of CPP's right wing. Defeated by PP in 1969. Joined others in opposition Justice Party (JP).
1972-75 National Redemption Council (NRC). Name adopted by Lieutenant Colonel I.K. Acheampong and associates after overthrow of Busia government. Ruled country without civilian input, with soldiers assigned to every organization.
1975-79 Supreme Military Council (SMC). Established by Acheampong out of the NRC. After ouster of Acheampong in 1978, began steps toward civilian rule, calling for elections in June 1979. On eve of elections, overthrown by junior officers of Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC).
1978-81 People's National Party (PNP). Created to contest 1979 election. Attracted former NAL members and others. Chose Hilla Limann as its candidate and won election by slim majority.
Popular Front Party (PFP). Party of former Busia supporters. Formed opposition in new parliament.
1979 Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC). Name adopted by Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings and associates after Ghana's first violent coup. Without concrete platform except to punish corruption. Withdrew in favor of elected Limann government after four months in power.
1982-92 Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC). Composed of leaders of Rawlings's second coup. With considerable evolution of personnel and objectives, continued until 1992 to be the sole center of political power in Ghana.
1992-National Democratic Congress (NDC), National Independence Party (NIP), New Patriotic Party (NPP), People's Heritage Party (PHP), and People's National Convention (PNC) are major parties organized to contest 1992 presidential election. NDC party of Rawlings and PNDC; NPP largely Asante-based, nominated Adu Boahen; NIP, PHP, and PNC all Nkrumahists. NCD elected, formed first government under Fourth Republic; remaining parties form opposition. In 1993 NIP and PHP formed (new) People's Convention Party (PCP).

Table 12. Voting Patterns in the District Assembly Elections by Region, 1988-89

RegionDistrictCandidatesRegist ered VotersVotes CastPercentage Turnout
Ashanti182,211950,222577,73560.8
Brong-Ahafo131,629650,143391,48960.2
Central121,421549,564307,66856.0
Eastern151,825744,160452,44960.8
Greater Accra5693792,012350,86144.3
Northern131,471508,560308,19160.6
Upper East6822358,174222,06862.0
Upper West5458212,192143,01767.4
Volta121,343568,590334,44558.6
Western11969589,221328,47955.3
GHANA11012,8425,922,8383,416,40258.9

Source: Based on information from Ghana, Local Government Information Digest, Special Editions I and II, Nos. 4-5, Accra, 1989.


Ghana - TABLE OF CONTENTS


Go Up - Top of Page

Make allRefer Reference your HomepageAdd allRefer Reference to your FavoritesGo to Top of PagePrint this PageSend this Page to a Friend


Information Courtesy: The Library of Congress - Country Studies


Content on this web site is provided for informational purposes only. We accept no responsibility for any loss, injury or inconvenience sustained by any person resulting from information published on this site. We encourage you to verify any critical information with the relevant authorities.

 

 

 
 


About Us | Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy | Links Directory
Link to allRefer | Add allRefer Search to your site

allRefer
All Rights reserved. Site best viewed in 800 x 600 resolution.