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Hungary

 
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Appendix A. Tables

Table 1. Metric Conversion Coofficients and Factors

When you kowMultiply byTo find
Millimeters0.04inches
Centimeters0.39inches
Meters3.3feet
Kilometers0.62miles
Hectares2.47acres
Square kilometers0.39square miles
Cubic meters35.3cubic feet
Liters0.26gallons
Kilograms2.2pounds
Metric tons0.98long tons
1.1short tons
2,204pounds
Degrees Celsius (Centigrade)1.8 and add 32degrees Fahrenheit

Table 2. Population, Selected Years, 1920- 87

(in thousands)
YearFemalesMalesTotal
19204,112.83,874.17,986.9
19304,436.74,248.48,685.1
19414,755.24,560.99,316.1
19494,781.44,423.49,204.8
19605,157.04,804.09,961.0
19705,318.45,003.710,322.1
19805,520.85,188.710,709.5
19855,508.15,149.310,657.4
19865,501.95,138.110,640.0
19875,494.55,126.610,621.1

Source: Based on information from Hungary, Central Statistical Office, Statistical Yearbook, 1986, Budapest, 1988, 39.

Table 3. Marriages and Divorces, Selected Years, 1921-86

(per thousand population)
YearMarriagesDivorces
192111.60.8
19309.00.6
19388.10.6
194810.71.2
19608.91.7
19709.32.2
19759.92.5
19807.52.6
19856.92.8
19866.82.8

Source: Based on information from Hungary, Central Statistical Office, Statistical Yearbook, 1986, Budapest, 1988, 48.

Table 4. Infant Mortality, Selected Years, 1921-86

(per thousand live births)
YearTotalYearTotal
1921192.7198023.2
1930152.5198120.8
1938131.4198220.0
194894.1198319.0
196047.6198420.4
197035.9198520.4
197532.8198619.0

Source: Based on information from Hungary, Central Statistical Office, Statistical Yearbook, 1986, Budapest, 1988, 61.

Table 5. Active Earners by Sector, Selected Years, 1949-87

(in percentages)
Sector194919601970198 01987
Industry19.427.936.333.931.2
Construction2.26.17.48.27.0
Agriculture and forestry53.838.524.419.019.3
Waterworks and supply0.10.21.21.51.6
Transportation and telecommunications4.46.57.38.18.3
Trade5.36.37.99.810.5
Other material activityn.a.n.a.n.a.0.91.0
Personal and economic services3.52.52.83.13.7
Sanitary, social, and cultural services3.85.67.710.412.5
Public administration and other services7.56.45.05.14.9
TOTAL100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Percentage of women29.235.541.243.446.0

n.a.--not available.

Source: Based on information from Hungary, Central Statistical Office, Statistical Yearbook, 1986, Budapest, 1988, 27, 28, 39.

Table 6. Gross Output and Net National Product by Sector, 1970, 1980, and 1986

(in percentages at constant prices)
SectorGross OutputNet National Product
1970198019861970 19801986
Industry50.251.850.736.236.936.0
Construction8.27.56.39.18.87.4
Agriculture and forestry17.817.418.222.319.621.5
Transportation, post, and telecommunications5.65.45.67.77.97.8
Wholesale and retail trade7.25.96.111.811.010.6
Water works and supply1.01.01.10.91.20.9
Other material activitiesn.a.0.50.7n.a.0.71.2
Non-material branches and price differences10.010.511.312.013.914.6
TOTAL100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

n.a.--not available.

Source: Based on information from Hungary, Central Statistical Office, Statistical Yearbook, 1986, Budapest, 1988, 30.

Table 7. Average Investment by Sector, 1961- 70, 1971-80, and 1981-86

(in percentages, at current prices)
Sector1961-701971-801981- 86
Industry38.234.631.4
Construction2.52.61.4
Agriculture16.613.812.8
Transportation and communications12.912.011.3
Trade3.14.24.3
Waterworks and supply2.95.16.1
Other material activitiesn.a.n.a.0.5
Nonmaterial branches23.827.732.2
TOTAL100.0100.0100.0

n.a.--not available.

Source: Based on information from Hungary, Central Statistical Office, Statistical Yearbook, 1986, Budapest, 1988, 30.

Table 8. Share of Social Sectors in Employment and National Income, 1970, 1980, and 1986

(in percentages)
SectorDistribution of Active EarnersContribution to National Income
1970198019861970 19801986
State sector67.771.170.570.769.863.4
Cooperative sector28.125.524.423.623.023.0
Auxiliary farms of persons employed outside agriculturen.a.n.a.n.a.3.13.76.6
Private sector4.23.45.12.63.57.0
TOTAL100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

n.a.--not available.

Source: Based on information from Hungary, Central Statistical Office, Statistical Yearbook, 1986, Budapest, 1988, 30; and Janos Kornai, "The Hungarian Reform Process: Visions, Hopes, and Reality," Journal of Economic Literature, 24, December 1986, 1692.

Table 9. Output of Selected Agricultural Products, 1976-87

Product1976-8011981- 85119861987
Wheat25,1866,0665,7405,674
Corn26,3746,9777,0296,987
Potatoes21,5671,4461,2641,270
Sugarbeets23,9794,4613,7604,224
Sunflowerseed2300615857787
Cattle31,9261,9191,7661,725
Hogs37,8058,9538,2808,687
Poultry363,00265,08261,57067,010
Sheep32,5603,0442,4652,337
Beef and Veal3203204196200
Pork29221,0971,0481,038
Poultry Meat2328320440470
Milk22,2832,7522,7782,786
Eggs44,4754,3514,2904,120

1 Average.
2 By 1,000 tons.
3 By 1,000 head.
4 By million prices.

Source: Based on information from Hungary, Central Statistical Office, Statistical Yearbook, 1986, Budapest, 1988, 181, 187, 188; and Nancy J. Cochrane and Miles J. Lampert, Agricultural Performance in Eastern Europe, 1987, Washington, 1988, 19-20.

Table 10. Contribution to Agricultural Gross Output by Type of Farm, Selected Years, 1966-86

(in percentages)
Type of Farm1966197519801986
State farms16.418.016.817.6
Cooperative farms48.450.550.451.0
Household plots23.719.018.516.4
Auxiliary and private farms11.512.514.314.9
TOTAL100.0100.0100.099.9*

*Figures do not add to 100 percent because of rounding.

Source: Based on information from Janos Kornai, "The Hungarian Reform Process: Visions, Hopes, and Reality," Journal of Economic Literature, 24, 1986, 1701; and Hungary, Central Statistical Office, Statistical Yearbook, 1986, Budapest, 1988, 174.

Table 11. Structure of Imports and Exports, 1986

(in percentages)
Commodity GroupImportsExports
Fuel and electricity19.43.5
Raw materials, semifinished goods, and spare parts44.830.2
Machinery and capital goods16.730.0
Industrial consumer goods11.716.2
Agricultural goods7.420.1
TOTAL100.0100.0

Source: Based on information from Hungary, Central Statistical Office, Statistical Yearbook, 1986, Budapest, 1988, 272.

Table 12. Agricultural Imports and Exports, 1976-86

(in thousands of tons)*
Average 1976-80Average 1981- 851986
ProductImportsExportsImports ExportsImportsExports
Grain
Wheat8682261,363n.a.1,669
Corn1163302325023478
Other500-16723493211827
Total grain2911,035981,6451412,174
Oilseed Meal61456793256631
Meat Products132851442319421
Sugar84312843n.a.5

n.a.--not available.
1 No information reported on amounts less than 1,000 tons.
2 Average.

Source: Based on information from Nancy J. Cochrane and Miles J. Lampert, Agricultural Performance in Eastern Europe, 1987, Washington, 1988, 13-14, 17-18.

Table 13. Rank Order of Hungary's Principal Trading Partners, 1984, 1985, and 1986

*
(in percentages)
198419851986
CountryImportsExportsImports ExportsImportsExports
Soviet Union29.130.130.033.630.933.9
West Germany10.77.411.47.812.48.4
East Germany6.45.96.56.16.76.4
Austria5.15.36.45.36.25.3
Czechoslovakia5.05.25.05.75.25.9
Poland4.44.24.73.84.74.2
Italy2.43.32.82.92.73.2
Yugoslavia3.93.43.53.62.73.1
United States2.52.73.02.32.02.3
Switzerland2.02.22.02.02.11.9
Romania1.81.51.81.71.92.0
China0.60.80.91.31.81.9
France1.71.71.81.41.91.5
Britain1.81.51.91.51.81.3
Bulgaria1.41.51.51.41.41.6
Netherlands1.31.11.30.91.41.1
Japan1.10.41.73.41.50.5
Belgium1.00.51.13.81.30.7
Sweden1.00.71.10.71.10.8
Brazil3.1n.a.1.70.31.20.5
Others13.720.69.910.59.113.5
TOTAL100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0

n.a.--not available.
*Percentages of imports and exports for each year, ranked according to the total for 1986.

Source: Based on information from "Hungary," The Europa Yearbook 1988, London, 1988, 1309; and Hungary, Central Statistical Office, Statistical Yearbook, 1986, Budapest, 1988, 276-77.

Table 14. National Economic Indicators, Selected Years, 1950-86

(1950=100)
Indicator195019601970 19801986
National income100177300467501
National income in industry (percentage of total)2737464846
National income in agriculture (percentage of total)4831221619
Industrial output100228456804919
Agricultural output100106103115124
Investment (excluding private)100197448708618
Investment in industry (percentage of total investment)n.a.41343129
Production per person in state industry100148226381462
Agricultural hauling power (in thousands of kilowatts)3021,3253,8247,4618,509
Fertilizer per hectare (in thousands of kilograms)523122211212

n.a.--not available.

Source: Based on information from Hungary, Central Statistical Office, Statistical Yearbook, 1986, 1988, 7-9, 15, 79; and Diane Flaherty, "Regional Policy and the Reform of Central Planning: An Assessment of the GDR, Hungarian, and Yugoslav Approaches," Contributions to Political Economy, 3, March 1984, 42.

Table 15. Foreign Trade and Current Account Balance, 1981-87

1981198219831984 198519861987
Current account balance1- 730-64298338-459- 1440-945
Trade account balance1- 83459533608112- 440-20
Gross hard-currency debt28.77.78.38.811.815.117.7
Net hard-currency debt27.06.66.86.78.612.015.5

1 In millions of United States dollars.
2 In billions of United States dollars.

Source: Based on information from Przemyslaw T. Gajdeczka, "International Market Perceptions and Economic Performance: Lending to Eastern Europe," Eastern European Politics and Societies, 2, No. 3, Fall 1988, 10; and Nancy J. Cochrane and Miles J. Lampert, Agricultural Performance in Eastern Europe, 1987, Washington, 1988, 566-67.


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