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Appendix
Table 1. Metric Conversion Coefficients and Factors

When you know Multiply by To find
Millimeters 0.04 inches
Centimeters 0.39 inches
Meters 3.3 feet
Kilometers 0.62 miles
Hectares 2.47 acres
Square kilometers 0.39 square miles
Cubic meters 35.3 cubic feet
Liters 0.26 gallons
Kilograms 2.2 pounds
Metric tons 0.98 long tons
1.1 short tons
2,204.0 pounds
Degrees Celsius (Centigrade) 1.8 and add 32 degrees Fahrenheit

Table 2. Annual Climatic Statistics, Selected Stations, 1990

Station Approximate Precipitation (in millimeters) Average Temperature Range (in degrees Celsius)
Minimum Maximum
Bangalore 750 14.5 34.7
Bombay 877 19.8 33.2
Calcutta 2,167 14.2 34.5
Darjiling 2,783 1.7 21.6
Hyderabad 1,596 15.0 38.8
Madras 1,058 19.8 36.1
New Delhi 911 8.3 39.9
Patna 1,011 9.4 36.4
Port Blair 2,257 22.1 31.9
Shillong 2,427 7.1 24.2
Shimla 1,767 4.0 25.3
Srinagar 1,239 -1.7 30.8
Thiruvananthapuram 2,357 22.1 33.6
Vishakhapatnam 2,004 21.0 32.9

Source: Based on information from India, Ministry of Planning, Department of Statistics, Central Statistical Organisation, Statistical Pocket Book, 1991, New Delhi, 1992, 225-28.

Table 3. Area, Population, and Population Density by State and Union Territory, 1981 and 1991

State or Union Territory Area (in square kilometers) Population (in thousands) Population Density (persons per square kilometer)
  1981 1991 1981 1991
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 8,249 189 281 23 34
Andhra Pradesh 275,045 53,550 66,508 195 242
Arunachal Pradesh 83,743 632 865 8 10
Assam 78,438 18,041 22,414 230 286
Bihar 173,877 69,915 86,374 402 497
Chandigarh 114 452 642 3,961 5,632
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 491 104 138 211 282
Daman and Diu 112 79 102 705 907
Delhi 1,483 6,220 9,420 4,194 6,352
Goa 3,702 1,008 1,170 272 316
Gujarat 196,024 34,086 41,310 174 211
Haryana 44,212 12,922 16,464 292 372
Himachal Pradesh 55,673 4,281 5,171 77 93
Jammu and Kashmir 222,236 5,987 7,719 59 76
Karnataka 191,791 37,136 44,977 194 235
Kerala 38,863 25,454 29,098 655 749
Lakshadweep 32 40 52 1,258 1,616
Madhya Pradesh 443,446 52,179 66,181 118 149
Maharashtra 307,713 62,784 78,937 204 257
Manipur 22,327 1,421 1,837 64 82
Meghalaya 22,249 1,336 1,774 60 79
Mizoram 21,081 494 690 23 33
Nagaland 16,579 775 1,210 47 73
Orissa 155,707 26,370 31,660 169 203
Pondicherry 492 604 807 1,229 1,642
Punjab 50,362 16,789 20,282 333 403
Rajasthan 342,239 34,262 44,005 100 129
Sikkim 7,096 316 406 45 57
Tamil Nadu 130,058 48,408 55,859 372 429
Tripura 10,486 2,053 2,757 196 263
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
Uttar Pradesh 294,411 110,863 139,112 377 473
West Bengal 88,752 54,581 68,078 615 767
INDIA 3,287,263 683,329 846,303 216 257

Source: Based on information from India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Census of India 1991: Final Population Totals: Brief Analysis of Primary Census Abstract, Series-1, Paper-2 of 1992, New Delhi, 1993, 78-97.

Table 4. Population and Population Density, Actual and Projected, Selected Years, 1901-2020

Year Population Population Density (persons per square kilometer)
1901 238,396,327 77
1911 252,093,390 82
1921 251,321,213 81
1931 278,977,238 90
1941 318,660,580 103
1951 361,088,090 117
1961 439,234,771 142
1971 548,159,652 177
1981 683,329,097 216
1991 846,302,688 267
1995 936,545,814 284
20002 1,018,105,000 309
20102 1,173,621,000 357
20202 1,320,746,000 401

Source: Based on information from India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Census of India 1991, Provisional Population Totals, Series-1, Paper-1 of 1991, New Delhi, March 1991, 43; India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Census of India 1991, Final Population Totals: Brief Analysis of Primary Census Abstract, Series-1, Paper-2 of 1992, New Delhi, 1993, 78 and 86; and United States, Bureau of the Census, World Population Profile: 1994, Washington, February 1994, A-5.

Table 5. Distribution of Urban Population by Size of City, Selected Years, 1901-91 (in percentages of total urban population)

Size of Urban Center and Number of Inhabitants 1901 1951 1961 1971 1981 19911
Class I (100,000 and above) 26.0 44.6 51.4 57.2 60.4 65.2
Class II (50,000 to 99,999) 11.3 10.0 11.2 10.9 11.6 10.9
Class III (20,000 to 49,999) 15.6 15.7 16.9 16.0 14.3 13.2
Class IV (10,000 to 19,999) 20.8 13.6 12.8 10.9 9.5 7.8
Class V (5,000 to 9,999) 20.1 13.0 6.9 4.5 3.6 2.6
Class VI (less than 5,000) 6.1 3.1 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.3
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Source: Based on information from Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1994-95, Bombay, 1994, 48.

Table 6. Population and Population Increase in Urban Agglomerates with More Than 1 Million Persons, 1971-91

Urban Agglomerate Population in 1991 (in thousands) Population Increase, 1971-81 (in percentages) Population Increase, 1981-91 (in percentages)
Bombay 12,572 42.9 33.4
Calcutta 10,916 23.9 18.7
Delhi 8,375 57.1 46.2
Madras 5,361 35.3 25.0
Hyderabad 4,280 42.7 67.0
Bangalore 4,087 75.6 39.9
Ahmadabad 3,298 45.9 28.9
Pune 2,485 48.6 47.4
Kanpur 2,111 23.5 28.8
Nagpur 1,661 40.8 36.2
Lucknow 1,642 23.8 63.0
Surat 1,517 87.4 64.2
Jaipur 1,514 59.4 49.2
Kochi 1,140 48.8 38.1
Coimbatore 1,136 25.0 23.4
Vadodara 1,115 67.4 42.5
Indore 1,104 47.9 33.1
Patna 1,099 66.7 19.6
Madurai 1,094 27.6 20.5
Bhopal 1,064 74.4 58.5
Vishakhapatnam 1,052 66.1 74.3
Varanasi 1,026 25.5 28.8
Kalyan 1,014 36.7 645.4
Ludhiana 1,012 51.3 66.7

Source: Based on information from Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1994-95, Bombay, 1994, 50-52.

Table 7. Infant Mortality, Selected Years, 1911-95

Period Deaths per 1,000 Live Births
1911-15 204
1916-20 219
1921-25 174
1926-30 178
1931-35 174
1936-40 161
1941-45 161
1946-50 134
1951-61 146
1961-71 129
1975-81 133
1992 91
1994 78
1995 (estimate) 76

Source: Based on information from Sudipto Mundle, "Recent Trends in the Condition of Children in India: A Statistical Profile," World Development [London], 12, No. 3, 1984, 301; "World Population Data Sheet of the Population Reference Bureau, Inc.," Washington, 1992; United States, Bureau of the Census, World Population Profile: 1994, Washington, February 1994, A-28; and United States, Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, 1995, Washington, 1995, 196.

Table 8. Health Care Services, Selected Fiscal Years, 1960-91 (in thousands)

Service 1960 1973 1984 1991
Primary health centers 2.8 5.3 7.3 22.4
Hospitals 4.0 4.0 7.4 11.2
Dispensaries 9.9 10.8 21.9 27.4
Hospital beds 186.0 406.0 625.0 811.0
Physicians (registered) 76.0 172.4 297.0 394.0
Nurses (registered) 32.7 94.0 171.0 n.a.

Source: Based on information from Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1988-89, Bombay, 1988, 175; and Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1994-95, Bombay, 1994, 190.

Table 9. Enrollment of School Children by Age, Selected School Years, 1950-91 (in percentages of total population in age-group)

School Year Primary School (ages 6-11) Middle School (ages 11-14) High School (ages 14-17)
1950-51 42.6 12.7 5.3
1955-56 52.8 16.5 7.4
1960-61 62.4 22.5 10.6
1965-66 76.7 30.8 16.2
1970-71 76.4 34.2 n.a.
1975-76 83.8 36.7 18.3
1980-81 80.5 41.9 n.a.
1985-86 93.1 52.0 n.a.
1990-91 100.0 60.1 n.a.

Source: Based on information from Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1988-89, Bombay, 1988, 171; and India, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Research and Reference Division, India: A Reference Annual, 1988-89, New Delhi, December 1989, 73.

Table 10. Number of Schools and Teachers, Selected School Years, 1950-51 to 1986-87

Type 1950-51 1960-61 1970-71 1980-81 1986-87
Schools          
Primary 209,671 330,399 408,378 485,538 530,728
Middle 13,596 49,663 90,600 116,447 n.a.
High 7,288 17,257 36,700 47,755 206,6693
Technical 1,377 2,738 2,337 8,708 2,627
Universities/ colleges 27 45 100 132 159
Total schools 231,959 400,102 538,115 658,580 740,183
Teachers          
Primary 537,918 741,515 1,376,176 1,345,376 1,530,938
Middle 85,496 345,228 n.a. 830,649 n.a.
High 126,504 296,305 948,887 902,332 2,148,239
Technical 28,283 58,851 33,454 30,055 53,161
University/ college 18,648 41,759 113,037 185,558 277,747
Total teachers 796,849 1,483,658 2,471,554 3,293,970 4,010,085

Source: Based on information from Tata News Services, Statistical Outline of India, 1988-89, Bombay, 1988, 171; India, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Research and Reference Division, India: A Reference Annual, 1988-89, New Delhi, December 1989, 73; and India, Ministry of Planning, Department of Statistics, Central Statistical Organisation, Statistical Abstract, 1990, New Delhi, 1990, 499-500.

Table 11. Enrollment by Education Level, Selected School Years, 1950-51 to 1990-91 (in millions)

School Year Primary School (Classes I-V) Middle School (Classes VI-VIII) High School (Classes IX-XII)
1950-51 19.2 3.1 1.2
1955-56 25.2 4.3 1.9
1960-61 35.0 6.7 2.9
1965-66 50.5 10.5 5.0
1970-71 57.0 13.3 6.6
1975-76 65.7 16.0 7.4
1980-81 73.8 20.7 10.8
1985-86 86.5 28.1 15.1
1990-91 99.1 33.3 20.9

Source: Based on information from Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1988-89, Bombay, 1988, 171; Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1994-95, Bombay, 1994, 187; and India, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Research and Reference Division, India: A Reference Annual, 1993, New Delhi, January 1994, 85.

Table 12. Enrollment of School-Age Population by Gender, Selected School Years, 1960-61 to 1986-87 (in percentages)

Level and Gender 1960-61 1975-76 1980-81 1986-87
Primary school 62.4 79.3 80.5 95.9
Males 82.6 95.7 95.8 111.8
Females 41.4 62.0 64.1 79.2
Middle school 22.5 35.6 41.9 53.1
Males 33.2 47.0 54.3 66.5
Females 11.3 23.3 28.6 38.9
High school 11.4 18.3 28.2 n.a.
Males 18.2 25.6 40.8 n.a.
Females 4.4 10.5 14.3 n.a.

Source: Based on information from United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, National Studies: India, Bangkok, 1991, 12.

Table 13. Religious Affiliations, 1991

Religious Group Number of Adherents Percentage of Total Population Percentage Growth since 1981
Hindus 687,646,721 82.0 22.8
Muslims 101,596,057 12.1 32.8
Christians 19,640,284 2.3 16.9
Sikhs 16,259,744 1.9 25.5
Buddhists 6,387,500 0.8 35.9
Jains 3,352,706 0.4 4.4
Other religions 3,269,355 0.4 13.2
Religion not stated 415,569 0.1 573.5
Total 838,567,936 100.0 n.a.

Source: Based on information from India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Census of India 1991: Religion, Series-1, Paper-1 of 1995, New Delhi, January 1995, x-xxiii, 18-60.

Table 14. National Calendar and Government Holidays

National Calendar    
Name of Month Dates on Gregorian Calendar
Chaitra March 22-April 20
Vaisakha April 21-May 21
Jyaistha May 22-June 21
Ashada June 22-July 22
Sravana July 23-August 22
Bhadra August 23-September 22
Asvina September 23-October 22
Kartika October 23-November 22
Agrahayana November 23-December 21
Pausa December 22-January 20
Magha Janaury 21-February 19
Phalguna February 20-March 21

NOTE: In 1957 the Indian government adopted a uniform, national calendar based on the Gregorian calendar and the Shaka Era (starting in A.D. 78) for civil government purposes. Using this calendar, the year A.D. 1995 is 1917 of the revised Shaka Era. The Shaka calendar has been used at least since the first century A.D. Because the Shaka calendar is based on solar and lunar observations, some of the dates of holidays listed below are subject to change in a given year and from one part of India to another. The dates shown below are from 1993 (Shaka 1915). An unofficial but widely used calendar in North India dates from the ninth century A.D., is based on the Vikrama Era (beginning in 57 B.C.), and starts in Chaitra. The Muslim calendar (starting with A.D. 622) is widely used among the Muslim population. The Buddhist calendar--based on the death of Buddha (483 B.C.)--and the Zoroastrian calendar (starting with 632 B.C.) are also used.

Government Holidays, 1993
Holiday Significance Date
Republic Day Commemorates 1950 proclamation of the Republic of India January 262
Holi Hindu spring festival March 8
Id al Fitr Marks end of the month of fasting during Ramadan (Ramzan), the ninth month on the Islamic calendar March 25
Ramanavami Commemorates birthday of Ram April 1
Mahavira Jayanti Mahavira's birthday April 5
Good Friday Commemorates death of Christ April 9
Buddha Purnima Commemorates birth, death, and enlightenment of the Buddha May 6
Id al Zuha (Bakr Id) Commemorates Abraham's williness to sacrifice his son Ishmael June 1
Muharram Muslim New Year's July 1
Janmashtami Birthday of Krishna August 11
Independence Day Marks independence from Britain August 15
Milad-un-Nabi (Id-e-Milad) Prophet Muhammad's birthday August 31
Mahatma Gandhi's Birthday Commemorates birth of Mohandas K. Gandhi October 22
Dussehra (Vijaya Dasami) Commemorates triumph of Ram over Ravana, tenth day of Asvina October 24
Dipavali (Diwali) Hindu festival of lights November 13
Guru Nanak's Birthday Commemorates birth of Sikh leader November 29
Christmas Day Commemorates birth of Christ December 252

Source: Based on information from Hindustan Year Book and Who's Who, 1994, Calcutta, 1994, 26-27; India, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity, "List of Government of India Holidays for 1993," New Delhi, 1993; and M.N. Saha and N.C. Lahiri, History of the Calendar in Different Countries Through the Ages, New Delhi, 1992, 254, 258.

Table 15. Vernacular Languages with More Than 1 Million Speakers, 1991

Language Estimated Number of Speakers States and Union Territories Where Use Is Most Prevalent
HINDI 153,729,062 Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chandigarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
TELUGU 44,707,697 Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Pondicherry, West Bengal
BENGALI 44,521,533 Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Orissa, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
MARATHI 41,723,893 Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh,
TAMIL 37,592,794 Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu
URDU 28,600,428 Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Ra-jasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal
GUJARATI 25,656,274 Daman and Diu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh
MALAYALAM 21,917,430 Kerala, Lakshadweep, Maharashtra
KANNADA 21,595,019 Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu,
ORIYA 19,726,745 Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal
Bhojpuri 14,340,564 Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh
PUNJABI 13,900,202 Bihar, Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh
ASSAMESE 8,958,977 Assam
Chhatisgarhi 6,693,445 Madhya Pradesh
Magadhi 6,638,495 Bihar, West Bengal
Manipuri (Meithei) 6,121,922 Meghalaya
Marwari 4,714,094 Rajasthan
Santali 3,693,558 Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Tripura, West Bengal
KASHMIRI 2,421,760 Jammu and Kashmir
Rajasthani 2,093,557 Rajasthan
Gondi 1,548,070 Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra
KONKANI 1,522,684 Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra,
Dogri-Kangri 1,298,885 Jammu and Kashmir
NEPALI 1,286,824 Sikkim, West Bengal
Garhwali 1,227,151 Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh
Pahari 1,269,651 Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir
Bhili 1,250,312 Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan
Oraon (Kurukh) 1,240,395 Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal
Kumaoni 1,234,939 Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh
SINDHI 1,204,678 Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan
Lamani (Lambadi) 1,203,338 Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal
Tulu 1,156,950 Karnataka, Kerala
Bagri 1,055,607 Punjab, Rajasthan

Note: Languages shown in UPPER CASE print are Scheduled Languages (see Glossary). The other Scheduled Language--Sanskrit--has an estimated 2,200 speakers. Some observers estimate that more than 28 million people use English as a first, second, or third language with varying degrees of proficiency.

Source: Based on information from Hindustan Year-Book and Who's Who, 1994, Calcutta, 1994, Part II, 207-208; Barbara F. Grimes, ed., Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Dallas, 1992, 532-65; and Kumar Suresh Singh, ed., People of India, 11: An Anthropological Atlas, New Delhi, 1993, 77.

Table 16. Growth of Gross National Product, Fiscal Years 1951-89 (in percentage change from previous year at constant FY 1980 prices)

Period GNP GNP per Capita
1951-55 3.6 1.7
1956-60 3.9 1.9
1961-65 2.3 0.1
1966-68 2.2 -0.1
1969-73 3.3 0.9
1974-79 3.1 2.6
1980-84 5.4 3.2
1985-89 5.5 3.3

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: India, Nepal, 1993-94, London, 1993, 14.

Table 17. Gross Domestic Product by Sector, Selected Fiscal Years, 1987-92 (in percent share)

Sector 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992
Primary (agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying) 32.5 34.8 33.8 33.5 32.8 32.3
Secondary (manufacturing, construction, electricity, other) 28.8 26.9 27.0 27.7 27.4 26.9
Trade, transportation, and communications 17.2 17.5 18.5 18.0 18.0 18.3
Real estate and finance 9.4 9.5 9.9 10.7 10.7 10.9
Services, including public administration and defense 12.1 11.3 10.8 11.1 11.1 11.6
TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: India, Nepal, 1994-95, London, 1995, 21.

Table 18. Government Income and Expenditure, Fiscal Years 1981, 1989, and 1992 (in billions of rupees at current prices)

  1981 1989 1992
Direct taxes 44.6 113.5 210.6
Indirect taxes 200.9 668.8 994.3
Profits -10.5 -23.2 -28.4
Interest receipts 11.1 36.3 64.6
Property receipts 9.8 33.8 62.0
Miscellaneous 3.9 18.7 31.4
Total income 259.8 847.9 1,334.5
Total outlay 241.8 1,044.3 1,537.2
Savings 17.9 -176.4 -202.7
Savings as percentage of GNP 1.1 -3.9 -2.9

Source: Based on information from Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1992-93, Bombay, 1992, 20; and Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1994-95, Bombay, 1994, 22.

Table 19. Balance of Trade, Selected Fiscal Years, 1980-93 (in billions of rupees)

Year Imports Exports Balance
1980 125.5 67.1 -58.4
1985 196.6 109.0 -87.6
1986 200.9 124.5 -76.4
1987 222.4 156.7 -65.7
1988 282.4 202.3 -80.0
1989 353.3 276.6 -76.7
1990 432.0 325.5 -106.5
1991 478.5 440.4 -38.1
1992 633.8 536.9 -96.9
1993 728.1 695.5 -32.6

Source: Based on information from Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1992-93, Bombay, 1992, 93; and Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1994-95, Bombay, 1994, 101.

Table 20. Principal Exports, Fiscal Years 1990-93 (in billions of United States dollars)

Commodity 1992 1993
Value Percentage Value Percentage
Agriculture and allied products        
Cashew kernels 0.3 1.4 0.3 1.5
Coffee 0.1 0.8 0.1 0.7
Fish and fish products 0.5 2.9 0.6 3.3
Oil meals 0.3 1.9 0.4 2.1
Raw cotton 0.5 2.6 0.1 0.7
Rice 0.3 1.4 0.3 1.7
Spices 0.1 0.7 0.2 0.8
Sugar 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.4
Tea and mate 0.6 3.3 0.5 2.7
Tobacco 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.9
Total agriculture and allied products 3.1 15.0 2.5 14.8
Ore and minerals        
Iron ore 0.6 3.2 0.6 3.3
Other ore and minerals 0.3 1.4 0.2 1.3
Total ore and minerals 0.8 4.6 0.8 4.6
Manufactured goods        
Chemicals 1.4 7.8 1.6 8.9
Handicrafts        
Gems and jewelry 2.9 16.1 2.7 15.3
Other handicrafts 0.5 2.9 0.7 3.7
Total handicrafts 3.4 19.0 3.4 19.0
Industrial machinery 2.2 11.9 2.2 12.5
Jute manufactures 0.2 0.9 0.2 0.9
Leather and leather products 1.5 8.0 1.3 7.1
Ready-made garments 2.2 12.3 2.2 12.3
Textiles 1.2 6.5 1.3 7.3
Total manufactured goods 12.1 66.4 12.2 6.8
Mineral fuels and lubricants        
Petroleum, oil, and lubri- cants 0.5 2.9 0.4 2.3
Other mineral fuels and lubricants 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
Total mineral fuels and lubricants 0.5 2.9 0.4 2.4
Other commodities 0.3 0.2 0.2 10.2
TOTAL 18.1 100.0 17.9 100.0
         
Agriculture and allied products        
Cashew kernels 0.3 1.4 0.3 1.5
Coffee 0.1 0.7 0.2 0.8
Fish and fish products 0.6 3.2 0.8 3.6
Oil meals 0.5 2.9 0.7 3.3
Raw cotton 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.9
Cereals 0.3 1.9 0.4 1.9
Spices 0.1 0.7 0.2 0.8
Fruits and vegetables 0.1 0.6 0.1 0.6
Tea 0.3 1.8 0.3 1.4
Tobacco (unmanufactured) 0.1 0.7 0.1 0.5
Total agriculture and allied products 2.5 14.2 3.3 15.3
Ore and minerals        
Iron ore 0.4 2.1 0.4 1.9
Processed minerals 0.1 0.8 0.2 0.9
Other ore and minerals 0.2 1.0 0.2 1.0
Total ore and minerals 0.7 3.9 0.9 3.8
Manufactured goods        
Drugs, pharmaceuticals, and fine chemicals 0.5 2.9 0.6 2.9
Dyes and coal tar chemicals 0.3 1.8 0.4 1.6
Electronic goods 0.2 1.1 0.3 1.4
Gems and jewelry 3.1 16.6 4.0 18.0
Handicrafts 0.9 4.7 0.9 4.2
Iron and steel, primary and semifinished 0.2 0.9 0.4 1.9
Leather and leather products (including footwear) 1.3 6.9 1.3 6.0
Machinery and instruments 0.5 2.9 0.6 2.9
Metal manufactures 0.6 3.0 0.7 3.1
Ready-made garments 2.4 12.9 2.6 11.6
Textiles, cotton yarns, fabrics 1.4 7.3 1.5 6.9
Transportation equipment 0.5 2.9 0.6 2.6
Total manufactured goods 11.9 13.9 16.8 83.1
Crude oil and petroleum products 0.5 2.6 0.4 1.8
Other commodities 0.2 0.9 0.1 0.8
TOTAL1 18.5 100.0 22.2 100.0

Source: Based on information from India, Ministry of Finance, Economic Division, Economic Survey, 1992-93, New Delhi, 1993, 102; and India, Ministry of Finance, Economic Division, Economic Survey, 1994-95, New Delhi, 1994, 95-96.

Table 21. Principal Imports, Fiscal Years 1990-93 (in billions of United States dollars)

Commodity 1992 1993
Value Percentage Value Percentage
Bulk imports        
Food and allied products        
Cereals 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.4
Edible oils 0.2 0.8 0.1 0.5
Pulses 0.3 1.1 0.1 0.5
Total food and allied products 0.6 2.3 0.3 1.4
Fuels        
Petroleum, oil, and lubri-cants 6.0 25.1 5.4 27.6
Coal 0.5 1.8 0.4 2.2
Total Fuels 6.5 26.9 5.8 29.8
Ore and minerals        
Iron and steel 1.2 4.9 0.8 4.1
Nonferrous metals 0.6 2.5 0.3 1.8
Ores and metal scrap 0.9 3.5 0.5 2.4
Total ore and minerals 2.7 10.9 1.6 8.3
Fertilizers 1.0 4.1 1.0 4.9
Paper, board, and pulp 0.5 2.1 0.3 1.7
Total bulk imports 11.2 46.3 9.0 46.1
Nonbulk imports        
Capital goods 5.8 24.2 4.2 21.8
Export-related imports        
Pearls and precious stones 2.1 8.7 2.0 10.1
Chemicals 1.3 5.3 1.4 7.1
Textile yarn, fabric, and other 0.3 1.0 0.1 0.7
Cashew nuts 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.6
Total export-related imports 3.8 15.3 3.6 18.5
Other nonbulk items        
Professional instruments and other 0.6 2.5 0.4 2.1
Chemicals 0.5 2.1 0.4 2.2
Plastics and resins 0.6 2.5 0.6 2.9
Nonmetallic minerals 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.5
Total other nonbulk items 1.8 7.6 1.5 7.7
Total nonbulk imports 11.3 47.1 9.3 47.9
Other imports 1.6 6.5 1.2 5.9
TOTAL 24.2 100.0 19.5 100.0
Food and allied products        
Cashew nuts 0.1 0.6 0.2 0.7
Cereals 0.3 1.5 0.1 0.4
Edible oils 0.1 0.6 0.1 0.7
Pulses 0.1 0.5 0.2 0.8
Total food and allied products 0.7 3.2 0.6 2.4
Fuels        
Petroleum, oil, and lubri- cants 5.9 27.0 5.8 24.7
Coal 0.5 2.2 0.5 2.0
Total Fuels 6.4 29.2 6.3 26.7
Fertilizers 1.0 4.5 0.8 3.6
Paper board, paper manufactures, and newsprint 0.2 0.8 0.2 1.0
Capital goods        
Machinery (except for electrical machine tools) 1.7 7.6 2.2 9.4
Electrical machinery 0.8 3.8 0.8 3.4
Transportation equipment 0.5 2.1 1.3 5.4
Project goods 1.3 5.8 1.4 6.0
Total capital goods 4.3 19.3 5.7 24.2
Other items        
Pearls, precious stones, and semiprecious stones 2.4 11.2 2.6 11.3
Professional instruments, optical goods, and other 0.5 2.3 0.5 2.1
Chemicals 2.0 9.2 2.0 8.5
Iron and steel 0.7 3.3 0.8 3.4
Nonferrous metals 0.4 1.8 0.5 2.0
Total other items 6.0 27.8 6.4 27.3
Other unclassified imports 3.0 13.8 3.1 13.1
TOTAL1 21.6 100.0 23.3 100.0

Source: Based on information from India, Ministry of Finance, Economic Division, Economic Survey, 1992-93, New Delhi, 1993, 100; India, Ministry of Finance, Economic Division, Economic Survey, 1994-95, New Delhi, 1994, 97-98.

Table 22. Major Trading Partners, Fiscal Years 1990-93 (in billions of United States dollars)

Destination or Source 1992 1993
Exports Imports Exports Imports
Value Percentage Value Percentage Value Percentage Value Percentage
Britain 1.2 6.5 1.2 6.7 1.5 6.4 1.2 6.2
France 1.4 7.8 1.4 8.0 1.7 7.1 1.6 8.0
Other EC 2.4 13.2 2.6 14.7 3.3 13.5 2.9 15.0
United States 2.7 14.7 2.2 12.1 3.9 16.4 1.9 10.3
Japan 1.7 9.3 1.3 7.5 2.2 9.2 1.4 7.1
Other OECD 0.4 2.0 0.9 5.0 1.3 5.2 1.5 7.7
Soviet Union 2.9 16.1 1.1 5.9 2.2 9.2 0.7 3.8
Eastern Europe 0.3 1.8 0.3 1.9 0.4 1.8 0.3 1.4
OPEC 1.0 5.6 2.9 16.3 2.1 8.7 3.8 19.7
Developing countries (other than OPEC) 3.0 16.8 3.3 18.4 3.9 16.1 3.0 15.5
Other 1.1 6.2 0.6 3.5 1.5 6.3 1.1 5.5
TOTAL 18.1 100.0 17.8 100.0 24.0 100.0 19.4 100.0
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
Britain 1.2 6.5 1.4 6.5 1.3 6.2 1.5 6.6
Germany 1.4 7.7 1.7 7.6 1.5 6.9 1.7 7.7
Other EU 2.6 14.1 3.5 16.1 2.8 12.9 3.6 15.7
United States 3.5 19.0 2.1 9.8 3.9 18.0 2.7 11.7
Japan 1.4 7.7 1.4 6.5 1.7 7.8 1.5 6.6
Russia 0.6 3.3 0.3 1.2 0.6 2.9 0.2 1.1
Eastern Europe 0.2 1.1 0.3 1.4 1.9 0.9 1.1 0.5
OPEC3 1.8 9.6 4.7 21.6 2.3 10.7 5.2 22.4
Developing countries (other than OPEC) 3.8 20.8 3.3 15.2 5.3 24.1 3.5 15.3
Other 1.9 10.1 3.1 14.2 2.1 9.7 2.8 12.4
TOTAL4 18.4 100.0 21.8 100.0 23.4 100.0 23.8 100.0

Source: Based on information from India, Ministry of Finance, Economic Division, Economic Survey, 1992-93, New Delhi, 1993, 102, 105; and India, Ministry of Finance, Economic Division, Economic Survey, 1994-95, New Delhi, 1994, 98-99.

Table 23. Balance of Payments, Fiscal Years 1988-93 (in billions of United States dollars)

  1988 1989 1990 19912 1992 1993
Current Account            
Exports f.o.b. 14.3 17.0 18.5 18.3 18.9 22.70
Imports c.i.f. 23.6 24.4 27.9 21.1 23.2 23.99
Trade balance -9.4 -7.5 -9.4 -2.8 -4.4 -1.29
Invisibles (net) 1.4 0.6 -0.2 1.6 0.8 0.97
Current account balance -8.0 -6.8 -9.7 -1.2 -3.5 -0.32
Capital account            
External aid (net) 2.2 1.9 2.2 3.0 1.9 1.70
Commercial borrowings (net) 1.9 1.8 2.2 1.5 -0.4 0.84
Nonresident deposits (net) 2.5 2.4 1.5 0.3 2.0 0.94
Other capital flows 1.4 0.9 2.3 0.3 -0.2 2.15
Capital account balance 8.1 7.0 8.4 4.8 4.3 9.18
IMF borrowings (net) -1.8 -0.9 1.2 0.8 1.3 0.19
Official reserves +1.0 +0.7 +1.3 -3.6 -0.7 -8.87

Source: Based on information from India, Ministry of Finance, Economic Division, Economic Survey, 1992-93, New Delhi, 1993, 96; and India, Ministry of Finance, Economic Division, Economic Survey, 1994-95, New Delhi, 1994, 87.

Table 24. Share of Public and Private Sectors in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Fiscal Years 1981 and 1992 (in trillions of rupees at current prices)

Sector 1981 1992
Value Percentage Value Percentage
GDP (at factor cost)        
Public sector 0.3 20.8 1.7 27.2
Private sector 1.1 79.2 4.6 72.8
Total GDP (at factor cost) 1.4 100.0 6.3 100.0
Gross domestic savings        
Public sector 0.1 21.7 0.2 9.5
Private sector 0.3 78.3 1.4 90.5
Total gross domestic savings3 0.3 100.0 1.6 100.0
Gross domestic capital        
Public sector 0.2 41.9 0.7 41.4
Private sector 0.2 58.1 1.0 58.6
Total gross domestic capital 0.4 100.0 1.8 100.0

Source: Based on information from Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1992-93, Bombay, 1992, 20; and Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1994-95, Bombay, 1994, 22.

Table 25. Production of Selected Industrial Products, Selected Fiscal Years, 1970-92

Product Unit 1970 1980 1990 1992
Air conditioners (room) thousands of units 11.0 28.0 39.2 35.1
Aluminum thousands of tons 169.0 199.0 449.0 483.0
Aluminum conduc- tors -do- 64.2 86.0 67.6 24.1
Cars, jeeps, and Land Rovers thousands of vehicles 46.7 49.4 220.8 198.1
Caustic soda thousands of tons 371.0 578.0 981.0 1,079.0
Cement millions of tons 14.3 18.6 48.8 54.3
Commercial vehicles thousands of vehicles 41.2 71.7 145.5 132.6
Copper (blister) thousands of tons 9.3 25.3 40.6 45.3
Cotton cloth billions of square meters 7.8 9.6 17.8 19.0
Diesel engines (stationary) thousands of units 65.0 174.0 158.0 165.0
Finished steel millions of tons 4.6 6.8 13.5 15.2
Jute textiles -do- 1.1 1.4 1.4 1.3
Machinery for cement plants billions of rupees 0.0 0.3 2.8 1.8
Machinery for cotton textiles -do- 0.3 3.0 9.5 10.1
Machinery for sugar mills -do- 0.1 0.2 0.9 1.0
Machine tools -do- 0.4 1.7 7.9 9.7
Paper and board millions of tons 0.8 1.1 2.1 2.2
Pig iron -do- 7.0 9.6 12.1 13.2
Power transformers millions of kilovolt-amperes 8.1 19.5 36.6 34.1
Refrigerators (domestic) thousands of units 0.1 0.3 1.3 1.0
Soda ash millions of tons 0.4 0.6 1.4 1.39
Steel ingots -do- 6.1 10.3 13.5 15.2

Source: Based on information from Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1992-93, Bombay, 1992, 71-73; and Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1994-95, Bombay, 1994, 79-81.

Table 26. Area Planted in Principal Crops, Selected Fiscal Years, 1950-90 (in thousands of hectares)

Crop 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990
Food grains          
Cereals          
Rice 30,810 34,128 37,592 40,152 42,687
Wheat 9,746 12,927 18,241 22,279 24,167
Coarse grains 37,674 44,963 45,950 41,779 36,319
Total cereals 78,230 92,018 101,783 104,210 103,173
Pulses 19,091 23,563 22,534 22,457 24,662
Total food grains 97,321 115,581 124,317 126,667 127,835
Percent change n.a. 19 8 2 1
Oilseeds          
Peanuts 4,494 6,463 7,326 6,801 8,309
Rapeseed and mustard seed 2,071 2,883 3,323 4,113 5,700
Cottonseed -- -- -- 7,823 7,355
Sesame 2,204 2,169 2,450 2,472 2,595
Soybeans -- -- -- 392 2,365
Sunflower -- -- -- 119 1,642
Other oilseeds 1,958 2,255 2,336 4,072 1,977
Total oilseeds 10,727 13,770 15,435 25,792 29,943
Sugarcane 1,707 2,415 2,615 2,667 3,686
Cotton 5,882 7,610 7,605 7,823 7,440
Jute 571 629 749 941 778

Source: Based on information from United States, Embassy in New Delhi, Annual Commodity Report, Oilseeds and Products, 1992, New Delhi, 1992, 2, 13, 18, 21, 24, 32-33; India, Ministry of Finance, Economic Division, Economic Survey, 1991-92, 2: Sectoral Developments, New Delhi, 1992, S17-S19; India, Ministry of Planning, Department of Statistics, Central Statistical Organisation, Statistical Abstract 1990, India, New Delhi, 1991, 49; and India, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Research and Reference Division, India 1993: A Reference Annual, New Delhi, 1994, 398-99.

Table 27. Land Use, Selected Fiscal Years, 1970-87 (in millions of hectares)

Category 1970 1980 1985 1987 Percentage of Area Classified, 1987
Forest 63.9 67.4 67.0 66.9 19.6
Not available for cultivation          
Nonagricultural uses n.a. n.a. 20.5 20.8 6.1
Barren and uncultivable n.a. n.a. 20.2 20.4 6.0
Total not available for culti-vation 44.6 39.6 40.7 41.2 12.1
Other uncultivated land          
Permanent pastures and grazing lands 13.3 12.0 12.0 11.9 3.5
Tree crops and groves 4.3 3.5 3.5 3.5 1.0
Cultivable wasteland 17.5 16.7 15.7 15.6 4.6
Fallow land 19.4 24.6 24.9 29.6 8.7
Total other uncultivated land 54.5 56.8 56.1 60.6 17.8
Cropped area          
Net area sown 140.8 140.0 140.9 136.2 39.9
Area sown more than once per year 25.0 32.6 37.0 36.7 10.7
Total cropped area 165.8 172.6 177.9 172.9 50.6
Total area classified 328.8 336.4 341.7 341.6 100.0

Source: Based on information from United States, Embassy in New Delhi, India: Agricultural Situation, Annual Report, 1992, Washington, 1992, table 11; India, Ministry of Planning, Central Statistical Organization, Department of Statistics, Statistical Abstract 1990, India, New Delhi, 1991, 46-47; and Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1992-93, Bombay, 1992, 56.

Table 28. Harvested and Irrigated Areas, Selected Fiscal Years, 1970-90 (in millions of hectares)

Area 1970 1980 1987 1990
Harvested area        
Gross 165.8 172.6 172.9 182.5
Net 140.1 140.0 136.2 143.0
Cropping intensity (percentage) 118.4 123.3 127.0 127.6
Irrigated area        
Gross 38.2 49.8 56.2 59.0
Net 31.1 38.7 43.1 47.0
Irrigation intensity (percentage) 23.0 29.0 33.0 32.3

Source: Based on information from United States, Embassy in New Delhi, India: Agricultural Situation, Annual Report, 1992, Washington, 1992, table 10; and Tata Services, Department of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Outline of India, 1992-93, Bombay, 1992, 56-57.

Table 29. Production and Sale of Selected Mechanized Agricultural Equipment, Selected Fiscal Years, 1986-91 (in number of units)

Equipment 1986 1987 1988 1991
Tractors        
Produced 80,004 92,092 109,987 151,759
Sold 78,823 93,157 110,323 150,582
Power tillers        
Produced 3,325 3,005 4,798 7,580
Sold 3,209 3,097 4,678 7,528
Combine harvesters        
Produced 57 149 109 187
Sold 57 144 110 189

Source: Based on information from Hindustan Year Book and Who's Who, 1994, New Delhi, 1994, 236; and India, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Annual Report, 1994-95, New Delhi, 1994, 67.

Table 30. Yield of Principal Crops, Selected Fiscal Years, 1950-90 (in kilograms per hectare)

Crop 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990
Food grains          
Cereals          
Rice 668 1,013 1,123 1,336 1,751
Wheat 663 851 1,306 1,630 2,274
Coarse grains 408 528 665 695 n.a.
All cereals 542 693 949 1,142 1,573
Pulses 441 539 524 473 576
All food grains3 522 710 872 1,023 1,382
Oilseeds          
Peanuts 775 744 834 736 919
Rapeseed and mustard seed 368 467 594 560 900
Sesame 202 147 232 180 n.a.
Soybeans n.a. n.a. n.a. 1,128 1,022
Sunflower n.a. n.a. n.a. 555 540
Other oilseeds 470 505 604 305 n.a.
All oilseeds3 481 507 579 532 769
Sugarcane 33,421 46,133 48,324 57,836 65,000
Cotton 88 125 106 152 224
Jute 1,040 1,180 1,186 1,245 1,803

Source: Based on information from India, Ministry of Finance, Economic Division, Economic Survey, 1991-92, 2: Sectoral Developments, New Delhi, 1992, 5-18; and United States, Embassy in New Delhi, Annual Commodity Report, Oilseeds and Products, 1992, New Delhi, 1992, 22, 25.

Table 31. Production of Principal Crops, Selected Fiscal Years, 1950-90 (in thousands of tons)

Crop 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990
Food grains          
Cereals          
Rice 20,576 34,574 42,225 53,631 74,600
Wheat 6,462 10,997 23,832 36,313 54,500
Coarse grains 15,376 23,743 30,547 29,018 33,100
Total cereals 42,414 69,314 96,604 118,962 162,200
Pulses 8,411 12,704 11,818 10,627 14,100
Total food grains 50,825 82,018 108,422 129,589 176,300
Oilseeds          
Peanuts 3,481 4,812 6,111 5,005 7,600
Rapeseed and mustard seed 762 1,347 1,976 2,002 5,200
Cottonseed -- -- -- 2,700 3,900
Sesame 445 318 568 446 810
Soybeans -- -- -- 442 2,400
Sunflower -- -- -- 66 889
Other oilseeds 470 505 604 1,242 1,001
Total oilseeds 5,158 6,982 9,259 11,903 21,800
Sugarcane 57,050 111,410 126,368 154,248 240,300
Cotton 600 1,004 809 1,326 1,666
Jute 595,000 744,000 882,000 1,170,000 1,404,000

Source: Based on information from India, Ministry of Finance, Economics Division, Economic Survey, 1991-92, 2: Sectoral Developments, New Delhi, 1992, S16; and United States, Embassy in New Delhi, India: Agriculture Situation, Annual Report, 1992, Washington, 1992, table 19.

Table 32. Area under High-Yielding Varieties, Selected Fiscal Years, 1950-90

Category 1960 1970 1980 1990
Area sown with high-yielding varieties (millions of hectares) 1.9 15.4 43.1 63.9
Seeds        
Production, breeder seeds (millions of kilograms) n.a. n.a. 527 n.a.
Fertilizer consumption        
Total (millions of tons) 0.3 2.2 5.5 12.6
Per hectare (units) 1.9 13.1 31.8 68.8
Cooperative credit (billions of rupees) 214.4 678.8 2,216.3 3,187.0
Area sown in rice (millions of hectares) n.a. 5.6 18.2 28.1
Percentage of area sown in rice n.a. 14.9 45.3 65.9
Area sown in wheat (millions of hectares) n.a. 6.5 13.5 20.4
Percentage of area sown in wheat n.a. 35.6 60.6 85.0
Area sown for coarse grains (millions of hectares) n.a. 3.3 8.8 15.4
Percentage of area sown in coarse grains n.a. 7.2 21.0 42.2

Source: Based on information from India, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Research and Reference Division, India 1993: A Reference Annual, New Delhi, January 1994, 392; and India, Ministry of Finance, Economic Division, Economic Survey, 1991-92, 2: Sectoral Developments, New Delhi, 1992, S22.

Table 33. Lok Sabha Elections, 1952-91 (in numbers of seats and percentages of total votes)

Party 1952 1957 1962 1967 1971 1977 1980 1984 1989 1991
Congress (Congress (I) after 1978) 364 (45.0) 371 (47.8) 361 (46.0) 283 (40.7) 352 (43.7) 154 (34.5) 353 (42.7) 415 (48.1) 197 (39.5) 227 (37.6)
Communist Party of India 16 (3.3) 27 (8.9) 29 (10.0) 23 (5.2) 23 (4.7) 7 (2.8) 11 (2.6) 6 (2.7) 12 (2.6) 14 (2.5)
Jana Sangh 3 (3.1) 4 (5.9) 14 (6.4) 35 (9.4) 22 (7.4) -- -- -- -- --
Republican Party 2 (2.4) 4 (1.5) 3 (2.8) 1 (2.5) -- -- -- -- -- --
Hindu Mahasabha 4 (1.0) 1 (0.9) 1 (0.4) -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Ram Rajya Parishad 3 (2.0) 0 (0.4) 2 (0.6) -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Socialist Party 12 (10.6) -- 6 (2.5) -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party 9 (5.8) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Praja Socialist Party -- 19 (10.4) 12 (6.8) 13 (3.1) 2 (1. 0) -- -- -- -- --
Swatantra -- -- 18 (6.8) 44 (8.7) 8 (3.1) -- -- -- -- --
DMK -- -- 7 (2.0) 25 (3.9) 23 (3.8) 1 (1.7) 16 (2.1) -- -- --
Communist Party of India (Marxist) -- -- -- 19 (4.2) 25 (5.1) 22 (4.3) 36 (6.1) 22 (5.7) 33 (6.5) 35 (6.7)
                     
Samyukta Socialist Party -- -- -- 23 (4.9) 3 (2.4) -- -- -- -- --
Congress (O) -- -- -- -- 16 (10.4) -- -- -- -- --
Janata Party -- -- -- -- -- 298 (43.0) 31 (19.0) 10 (6.7) -- --
AIDDMK -- -- -- -- -- 19 (3.0) 2 (2.4) 12 (1.6) 11 (1.5) 11 (2.3)
Congress (U) -- -- -- -- -- -- 13 (5.3) -- -- --
Lok Dal (DMKP in 1984) -- -- -- -- -- -- 41 (9.4) 3 (5.6) -- --
Congress (S) -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 5 (1.7) -- --
AGP -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 7 (1.0) -- --
BJP -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2 (7.4) 85 (11.4) 119 (21.0)
Telegu Desam -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 30 (4.1) 2 (3.3) 13 (3.0)
Janata Dal -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 143 (17.8) 56 (11.6)
Samajwadi Janata Party -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 5 (3.5)
                     
                     
Shiv Sena -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 4 (0.8)
Other parties 35 (11.1) 29 (4.8) 14 (4.3) 19 (3.7) 30 (10.) 32 (5.2) 17 (4.0) 24 (7.3) 33 (12.2) 26 (6.3)
Independents 41 (15.8) 39 (19.4) 27 (12.3) 35 (13.8) 14 (8.4) 9 (5.5) 9 (6.4) 5 (8.1) 12 (5.2) 1 (4.7)
Electorate (in millions) 173.2 193.7 217.7 250.6 274.1 321.2 363.9 400.1 498.1 501.0
Turnout (in percentage) 45.7 47.7 55.4 61.3 55.3 60.5 57.0 64.1 61.9 51.1
Total seats authorized 489 494 494 520 518 542 542 542 543 537

Source: Based on information from Robert L. Hardgrave and Stanley A. Kochanek, India: Government and Politics in a Developing Nation, Forth Worth, 1993, 314, 319-20, 347.

Table 34. Order of Battle for the Armed Forces, 1994

Branch and Units Personnel or Unit
Army  
Personnel 940,000
Regional commands 5
Corps 12
Armored divisions 2
Tank regiments 55
Mechanized divisions 1
Infantry divisions 22
Battalions 355
Mountain infantry divisions 10
Independent brigades 14
Airborne/commando 1
Armored 5
Artillery 3
Regiments 290
Infantry 7
Mountain 1
Surface-to-surface missile brigade 1
Air defense brigades 6
Engineer brigades 3
Army aviation  
Air observation squadrons 8
Antitank/transport squadrons 6
Navy  
Personnel  
Line and staff 48,000
Naval air force 5,000
Marines 1,000
Total navy personnel 54,000
Commands 3
Fleets 2
Naval bases 9
Air Force  
Personnel 110,000
Air commands 5
Reserve forces personnel  
Territorial Army 36,456
National Cadet Corps 1,120,000
Civil Defence Volunteers 336,000
Home Guards 472,098
Total reserve forces personnel 1,964,554
   
Paramilitary forces personnel  
Assam Rifles 40,000
Border Security Force 90,000
Coast Guard Organisation 3,173
Central Industrial Security Force 83,781
Central Reserve Police Force 90,000
Defence Security Force 30,000
Indo-Tibetan Border Police 14,000
Rashtriya Rifles 5,000
National Security Guards 83,781
Provincial Armed Constabulary 250,000
Railway Protection Force 70,000
Special Frontier Force 3,000
Total paramilitary forces personnel 762,735

Source: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1994-1995, London, 1994, 153-56; and SP's Military Yearbook, 1993-94, ed., J. Baranwal, New Delhi, 1993, 291, 305, 319, 358, and 363.

Table 35. Major Army Equipment, 1994

Type and Description Country of Origin Number in Inventory
Armored vehicles    
Tanks    
Arjun MBT-90 main battle India --
Vijayanta main battle -do- 1,200
T-55 main battle -do- 800
T-72/M1 main battle -do- 1,400
PT-76 light amphibious -do- 100
Reconnaissance and personnel    
BRDM-2 reconnaissance vehicles -do- n.a.
Ferret (IS) reconnaissance vehicles Britain n.a.
BMP-1, BMP-2 armored infantry fighting vehicles (Sarath) India 900
OT-62, OT-64 armored personnel carriers -do- 157
BTR-50, BTR-60, BTR-152 armored personnel carriers -do- 100
FV432 armored personnel carriers Britain n.a.
Recovery    
Vijayanta India n.a.
Artillery    
Towed    
75mm 75/24 mountain howitzers India 900
76mm M-48 mountain guns Yugoslavia 215
85mm D-48 antitank guns Soviet Union n.a.
25-pounder field guns Britain n.a.
100mm M-1944 towed howitzers Soviet Union 185
105mm (including M-56 pack) howitzers India, Italy 50
105mm IFG Mk I/Mk II howitzers India 1,200
105mm light field guns -do- 533
130mm M-46 towed howitzers Soviet Union 550
5.5-inch medium howitzers Britain n.a.
155mm FH-77B howitzers Sweden 410
180mm S-23 howitzers Soviet Union n.a.
Self-propelled    
25-pounder howitzers Britain n.a.
105mm Abbott howitzers India 80
155mm howitzers n.a. --
130mm M-46 Catapult howitzers India 100
Multiple rocket launchers    
122mm BM-21 -do- 80
122mm BM-24 -do- n.a.
     
Mortars    
81mm E-1 India n.a.
120mm E-1 -do- n.a.
120mm M-43 Soviet Union 1,000
120mm Brandt AM-50, E-1 Netherlands 500
160mm M-160 Soviet Union 200
Antitank and guided weapons    
57mm M-18 recoilless rifles Brazil n.a.
84mm Carl Gustav recoilless rifles Sweden n.a.
106mm M-40A1 recoilless rifles United States 1,000
MILAN India n.a.
Nag -do- n.a.
AT-3 Sagger Soviet Union n.a.
AT-4 Spigot -do- n.a.
AT-5 Spandrel -do- n.a.
ENTAC France n.a.
Mines, antipersonnel    
M14 India n.a.
M16A -do- n.a.
Mines, antitank    
M1A -do- n.a.
M3A -do- n.a.
Antiaircraft weapons    
20mm Oerlikon, towed Switzerland n.a.
23mm ZU 32/2 air defense guns Soviet Union 140
23mm ZSU 23 air defense guns -do- n.a.
23mm ZSU 23/4 self-propelled air defense guns -do- 75
30mm 2S6 self-propelled air defense guns -do- 8
40mm L40/60 air defense guns Sweden 1,245
40mm L40/70 automatic guns -do- 1,000
Surface-to-air missiles    
SA-2 Guideline Soviet Union n.a.
SA-3 Goa -do- n.a.
SA-6 Gainful -do- 100
SA-7 Grail -do- 620
SA-8A and SA-8B Gecko -do- 48
SA-9 Gaskin -do- 200
SA-11 Gadfly -do- 50
SA-13 Gopher -do- 45
SA-16 -do- 200
Trishul India n.a.5
     
Agni -do- n.a.5
Akash -do- n.a.5
Surface-to-surface missiles    
Prithvi -do- 15
Helicopters    
Cheetah SA-315 India 40
Chetak SA-319 -do- 50
HAL advanced light helicopter -do- 1

Source: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1994-1995, London, 1994, 154; Jane's Infantry Weapons, 1994-95, Coulsdon, United Kingdom, 1994, 389-90; Jane's Armour and Artillery, 1994-95, Coulsdon, United Kingdom, 1994, 61-63, 154, 351-52, 543, 614-15, 692, 773; and Jane's Military Vehicles and Logistics, 1994-95, Coulsdon, United Kingdom, 1994, 34, 199-200.

Table 36. Major Naval Equipment, 1994

Type and Description Country of Origin Number in Inventory
Navy Ships    
Submarines    
Sindhugosh class (Soviet Kilo (Type 877EM) class) Soviet Union 8
Kursura class (Soviet Foxtrot (Type 641) class) -do- 6
Shishumar class (German 209 class, Type HDW 1500) Germany, India 4
Carriers    
INS Viraat (Hermes class) with 12 Sea Harriers FRS Mk 51, 7 Sea Kings, Mk 42B/C, 1 Ka-27 helicopter Britain 1
INS Vikrant (Majestic class) with 6 Sea Harriers FRS Mk 51, 9 Sea Kings Mk 42, 1 Chetak SAR -do- 1
Destroyers    
Rajput class (Soviet Kashin II class) with Goa surface-to-air missiles, Styx surface-to-surface missiles, 533mm torpedo tubes, antisubmarine rocket launchers, and Ka-28 helicopter Soviet Union 5
Delhi class with SS-N-22 Sunburn and SA-N-7 missiles; 324mm torpedo tubes; 2 Sea King Mk42B or HAL advanced light helicopters India 2
Frigates    
Godavari class with Sea King helicopters, antisubmarine torpedo tubes, and Styx surface-to- surface missiles -do- 3
Nilgiri class (British Leander class) with antisubmarine torpedo tubes, Limbo antisubmarine warfare mortars, Chetak and Sea King helicopters, antisubmarine warfare rocket launchers, and 114mm guns -do- 6
Kamorta class (Soviet Petya II class) with antisubmarine rocket launchers, 533mm torpedo tubes, and minelaying capabilities Soviet Union 5
Corvettes    
Khukri class (antisubmarine warfare) with Styx surface-to-surface missiles and helicopter deck India 5
Durg class (Soviet Nanuchka II class) with Styx surface-to-surface missiles Soviet Union 3
Veer class (Soviet Tarantul I class) with Styx surface-to-surface missiles Soviet Union, India 9
Abhay class (Soviet Pauk II class) with antisubmarine torpedo tubes and antisubmarine mortars -do- 4
Patrol forces ships    
Vidyut class (Soviet Osa II class) with Styx surface-to-surface missiles Soviet Union 8
Sukanya patrol ship, offshore with 1 Oerlikon 20mm gun, 1 Chetak helicopter South Korea, India 8
SDB Mk 2 patrol ship, inshore India 5
SDB Mk 3 patrol ship, inshore -do- 7
Mine warfare and countermeasure ships    
Pondicherry minesweeper, ocean (Soviet Natya I class) with minelaying capabilities Soviet Union 12
Mahé minesweeper, inshore (Soviet Yevgenya class) -do- 6
Bulsar minesweeper, inshore (British Ham class) Britain, India 4
Amphibious ships    
Magar class landing ship, tank, 200 troops, 12 tanks, 1 helicopter India 2
Vasco da Gama class (Mk 3) landing ship, utility, 287 troops -do- 7
Ghorpad class landing ship, medium (Soviet Polnocny C and D), 140 troops, 6 tanks Soviet Union 8
Naval Air Force    
Attack aircraft    
Sea Harrier FRS Mk 51 Britain 23
HAL Jaguar (Shamsher) India 8
Antisubmarine helicopters    
Chetak -do- 26
HAL advanced light helicopter -do- 1
Ka-25 Hormone Soviet Union 7
Ka-28 Helix -do- 10
Sea King Mk 4 Britain 12
Sea King Mk 4A/4B -do- 32
Marine reconnaissance and antisubmarine warfare aircraft    
PBN-2B Defender (utility) -do- 13
Il-38 May Soviet Union 5
Tu-142M Bear F -do- 10
HAL Dornier-228-201 India 10
Communications aircraft    
BN-2 Islander Britain 5
HAL Dornier-228 India 2
Chetak helicopters -do- 3
Search and rescue helicopters    
Sea King Mk 42C Britain 6
Training aircraft    
Sea Harrier T-Mk 60 (training) -do- 3
Kiran HJT-16 India 6
Deepak HPT-32 -do- 8
Training helicopters    
Chetak -do- 2
MD Hughes 300 United States 4
Missiles    
Air-to-air    
R-550 Magic I and II France 45
Antisubmarine    
Sea Eagle Britain n.a.
Sea Skua -do- n.a.

Source: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1994-1995, London, 1994, 154-55; Jane's Fighting Ships, 1994-95, Coulsdon, United Kingdom, 1994, 279-93; and Jane's All the World's Aircraft, 1994-95, Coulsdon, United Kingdom, 1994, 119, 121-23.

Table 37. Major Air Force Equipment, 1994

Type and Description Country of Origin Number in Inventory
Fighters, ground-attack    
MiG-21MF/PFMA Soviet Union 144
MiG-23 BN/UM -do- 54
Shamsher (Jaguar) Britain, India 89
Babhadur (MiG-27) India 120
Fighters    
HAL light combat aircraft -do- n.a.
MiG-21 FL/U Soviet Union 74
MiG-21 bis/U -do- 170
MiG-23 MF/UM -do- 26
MiG-29 UB -do- 59
Mirage 2000H/TH France 35
Electric countermeasures    
Canberra B(I) 58 Britain 5
Airborne surveillance warning and control system (ASWACS)    
HS-758 India 4
Maritime attack    
Jaguar with Sea Eagle Britain 8
Helicopters, attack    
Mi-25 Soviet Union 18
Mi-35 -do- 18
HAL advanced light helicopter India 1
Reconnaissance aircraft    
Canberra PR-57 Britain 6
Camberra PR-67 -do- 2
Andover HS-728 -do- 4
MiG-23R Soviet Union 6
MiG-23U -do- 2
Maritime reconnaissance/survey aircraft    
Gulfstream IV SRA United States 2
Learjet 29 -do- 2
Transport aircraft    
An-32 Sutlej Soviet Union 105
Il-76 Gajraj -do- 24
BAe-748 Britain 33
Dornier-228 Germany 30
Transport helicopters    
Mi-8 Soviet Union 80
Mi-17 -do- 50
Mi-26 -do- 10
     
VIP aircraft    
Boeing 707-337C United States 2
Boeing 737 -do- 3
BAe-748 Britain 7
Liaison aircraft    
BAe-748 -do- 16
Training aircraft    
BAe-748 -do- 28
Hunter F-56 -do- 20
Hunter T-66 -do- 18
Canberra T-54 -do- 2
Canberra TT-18 -do- 5
Jaguar IB France, Britain 15
Kiran I India 120
Kiran II -do- 56
Deepak HPT-32 -do- 88
HT-2 -do- 60
HTT-35 -do- n.a.
MiG-29 UB Soviet Union 5
Iskara TS-11 ac Poland 44
Training helicopters    
Chetak India 20
Mi-24 Soviet Union 2
Mi-35 -do- 2
Missiles    
Air-to-surface    
Akash India n.a.
AM-39 Exocet France n.a.
AS-7 Kerry Soviet Union n.a.
AS-10 Karen -do- n.a.
AS-11B France n.a.
AS-30 -do- n.a.
FAB-500 Soviet Union n.a.
FAB-750 -do- n.a.
FAB-1000 -do- n.a.
Sea Eagle Britain n.a.
Air-to-air    
AA-2 Atoll Soviet Union n.a.
AA-7 Apex -do- n.a.
AA-8 Aphid -do- n.a.
AA-10 Alamo -do- n.a.
AA-11 Archer -do- n.a.
     
R-550 Magic France n.a.
Super 530D -do- n.a.
Surface-to-air    
Divina V75SM/VK (SA-2, SA-3, and SA-5) Soviet Union 280

Source: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1994-1995, London, 1994, 155; Jane's All the World's Aircraft, 1994-95, Coulsdon, United Kingdom, 1994, 117, 119-21, 123; and Jane's Radar and Electronic Warfare Systems, 1994-95, Coulsdon, United Kingdom, 1994, 242.

Table 38. Major Coast Guard Equipment, 1994

Type and Description Country of Origin Number in Inventory
Patrol forces    
Offshore    
Samar India 3
Vikram (Type P-957) -do- 9
Inshore    
Jija Bai (Type 956) -do- 7
Raj (SDB Mk 2) -do- 5
32-ton patrol craft South Korea 8
Jija Bai (Mod 1) Singapore, India 11
49-ton patrol craft India 7
Aircraft    
HAL Dornier-228 maritime surveillance Germany, India 11
Chetak helicopter India 9
F-27 maritime Netherlands 2

Source: Based on information from Kailish Kohli, "Aviation in Indian Coast Guard," Sainik Samachar [New Delhi], 41, No. 5, January 30, 1994, 11; Jane's Fighting Ships, 1994-95, Coulsdon, United Kingdom, 1994, 294-95; and Jane's All the World's Aircraft, 1994-95, Coulsdon, United Kingdom, 1994, 123.


1. The 1981 census was not conducted in Assam. The population figures for 1981 for Assam have been calculated by interpolation by Indian census officials.
2. The 1991 census was not conducted in Jammu and Kashmir. The population figures for 1991 for Jammu and Kashmir were projected by the Standing Committee of Experts on Population Projections in October 1989. They do not include the population of areas controlled by Pakistan and China.
3. Numbers may not add to totals because of rounding.
4. Data before 1951 include population of prepartition India, which included areas that later became Pakistan and Bangladesh.
5. Projected by United States Bureau of the Census.
6. Figures for 1981 and 1991 exclude Assam and Jammu and Kashmir.
7. Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.
8. Greater Bombay. The population of the Bombay Municipal Corporation was 9,910,000.
9. Figures for primary health centers relate to a fiscal year--see Glossary.
10. Includes beds in dispensaries and other nonhospital health care facilities.
11. n.a.--not available.
12. n.a.--not available.
13. n.a.--not available.
14. Data for middle and high school combined for 1970-71.
15. Data for middle and high school combined for 1986-87.
16. Provisional.
17. n.a.--not available.
18. Sixty-three "other religions" were listed, including animists (1,458), atheists (1,782), Jews (5,271), non-Christians (9,615), pagans (1,711), Zoroastrians (76,382), and unclassified (212,652).
19. Total tabulated for religious affiliations is different from total tabulated for total national population. (846,302,688), which includes a projected figure for Jammu and Kashmir where the census was not taken in 1991.
20. n.a.--not applicable.
21. Starts on March 21 in leap year.
22. Fixed date on Gregorian calendar.
23. GNP--gross national product (see Glossary).
24. Provisional.
25. Including administrative departments and departmental enterprises, excluding railroads and telecommunications.
26. For value of the rupee--see Glossary.
27. As published.
28. GNP--gross national product (see Glossary).
29. For value of the rupee--see Glossary.
30. Including reexports.
31. Figures may not add to balances because of rounding.
32. Provisional figures.
33. Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.
34. Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.
35. European Community.
36. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
37. Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.
38. Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.
39. European Union, the successor to the European Community as of November 1, 1993.
40. Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.
41. Provisional data.
42. "Quick estimates."
43. Free on board.
44. Cargo, insurance, and freight.
45. Includes nonfactor services, investment income, private transfers, and grants.
46. Includes India Development Bonds.
47. Includes delayed export receipts, errors and omissions, and, for FY 1992, errors and omissions arising out of dual exchange rates.
48. International Monetary Fund--see Glossary.
49. Minus means increase, plus means decrease.
50. GDP--see Glossary.
51. For value of the rupee--see Glossary.
52. Provisional figures.
53. Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.
54. For value of the rupee--see Glossary.
55. Preliminary.
56. n.a.--not available.
57. --means negligible.
58. n.a.--not available.
59. Gross area harvested divided by net area harvested.
60. Gross irrigated area divided by gross harvested area.
61. Preliminary.
62. n.a.--not available.
63. Numbers in this row represent weighted averages rather than totals.
64. Preliminary.
65. --means negligible.
66. Preliminary.
67. n.a.--not available.
68. --means did not participate in election.
69. DMK--Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (Dravidian Progressive Federation).
70. AIADMK--All-India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (All-India Anna Dravidian Progressive Federation).
71. DMKP--Dalit Mazdoor Kisan Party (Oppressed Workers' and Peasants' Party).
72. AGP--Asom Gana Parishad (Assam People's Party).
73. BJP--Bharatiya Janata Party (Indian People's Party).
74. The number of seats won by political parties may not add to total seats authorized; because of unsettled conditions, elections may not be held in all constituencies, thus occasionally leaving some seats vacant.
75. Prototype; developed since 1974; completed trials in 1993; no production as of June 1994; production expected to start 1996.
76. n.a.--not available.
77. 120 sought from foreign source, 1994; 480 to be produced under license in India.
78. Under contract with France.
79. Under development.
80. Prototype, shared with Air Force.
81. Two built in Germany, two built in India; one other under construction; one more planned in India.
82. Two launched but not yet commissioned; one other under construction.
83. Two more under construction; one more planned.
84. One more under construction; two more planned.
85. Five built in Soviet Union, four built in India; two more planned.
86. Three built in South Korea, five built in India; one more planned.
87. Two built in Britain, two built in India.
88. One more under construction.
89. Prototype.
90. Under license with Germany.
91. Seventeen more planned or in production.
92. n.a.--not available.
93. Some assembled in India; additional inventory to be manufactured in India under license with Britain.
94. Under license with Soviet Union and Russia.
95. n.a.--not available.
96. Prototype; first flights expected in 1995 and 1996; initial operational capability in 2002; up to 200 units.
97. With India, French, and German equipment.
98. Prototype, shared with army.
99. Three built in Germany, eight built in India; twenty-two more on order.


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