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Libya

 
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Libya

Appendix A. Tables

Table 1. Metric Conversion Coofficients and Factors

When you kow Multiply by To find
Millimeters 0.04 inches
Centimeters 0.39 inches
Meters 3.3 feet
Kilometers 0.62 miles
Hectares 2.47 acres
Square kilometers 0.39 square miles
Cubic meters 35.3 cubic feet
Liters 0.26 gallons
Kilograms 2.2 pounds
Metric tons 0.98 long tons
1.1 short tons
2,204 pounds
Degrees Celsius (Centigrade) 1.8 and add 32 degrees Fahrenheit

Table 2. Educational Enrollment, Selected Academic Years, 1975-86

Level 1975-76 1980-81 1982-83 1985-86
All Students Females All Students Females All Students Females All Students Females
Primary 556,169 256,065 662,843 314,570 721,710 341,979 774,000 n.a.
Secondary 166,122 55,722 296,197 118,953 420,000 n.a. 271,000 n.a
General secondary n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 88,000 n.a.
Technical education n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 26,000 n.a.
Teachers institutes n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 35,000 n.a.
University and institutions of higher education 13,427 2,358 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 37,000 n.a.
Total 735,718 314,145 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 1,245,5081,2 575,0243

n.a.--not available.
1 Includes 15,000 children enrolled in kindergarten.
2 Figures may not add to total because of rounding.
3 Only gross figures available.

Source: Based on information from United Nations, Statistical Yearbook, 1983-84, New York, 1986, Tables 55, 56, and 57; and Az Zahf al Akhdar, Tripoli, September 1, 1986, Joint Publications Research Service, Near East/South Asia Reports, NEA-86-145, November 28, 1986, 44.

Table 3. Number of Teachers, Selected Academic Years, 1975-86

Level 1975-76 1980-81 1982-83 1985-86
All Students Females All Students Females All Students Females All Students Females
Primary 24,331 7,086 36,591 17,160 42,696 22,627 n.a.
Secondary 11,819 n.a. 24,323 5,750 30,673 8,483 n.a.
University and equivalent institutions 951 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Total 37,101 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 79,043*

n.a.--not available.
*Only gross figures available.

Source: Based on information from United Nations, Statistical Yearbook, 1983-84, New York, 1986, Tables 55, 56, and 57, and Az Zahf al Akhdar, Tripoli, September 1, 1986, Joint Publications Research Service, Near East/South Asia Reports, NEA-86-145, November 28, 1986, 44.

Table 4. Economically Active Population by Sector of Employment, 1984

Sector Number of Employed Percentage
Construction 197,000 21.2
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 171,500 18.5
Transportation and communications 80,000 8.6
Industry 69,000 7.4
Commerce, banking, and insurance 68,000 7.3
Public administration 60,000 6.5
Public utilities 22,500 2.4
Oil and gas, mining 19,000 2.0
Other1 240,000 25.9
Total 927,000 100.02
Total (Libyans) 664,000 71.6
Total (Non-Libyans) 263,000 28.4

1 Includes education and health.
2 Figures may not add to total because of rounding.

Source: Based on information from Central Bank of Libya, Annual Report, 1984. Tripoli, n.d., 39.

Table 5. Allocations of Development Plans, 1976-80 and 1981-85

(value in millions of Libyan dinars)1
1976-80 1981-85
Sector Value Percentage Value Percentage
Agriculture 1,476 16.0 3,100 17.9
Industry (light and heavy) 1,205 13.0 4,008 23.1
Public works2 1,131 12.2 3,305 19.1
Transportation and communications 930 10.0 2,204 12.7
Education 522 5.6 100 0.6
Health 276 3.0 621 3.6
Other 3,710 40.1 3,952 22.9
Total 9,250 100.03 17,290 100.03

1 For value of the Libyan dinar--see Glossary.
2 Figure for 1981-85 includes all allocations for utilities and electricity.
3 Percentages may not add to total because of rounding.

Source: Based on information from Stace Birks and Clive Sinclair, "Libya: Problems of a Rentier State," in Richard Lawless and Allan Findlay, eds., North Africa: Contemporary Politics and Economic Development, New York, 1984, 243; and from Central Bank of Libya, Annual Report, 1984, Tripoli, n.d., 55, 60.

Table 6. Gross Domestic Product by Sector, 1978-84

(in percentages)
Sector 1978 1979 1980 198 1 1982 1983 1984
Agriculture 2 2 2 2 3 3 4
Construction 12 10 9 10 13 11 11
Electricity, gas, and water 1 0 0 1 1 1 1
Oil and gas, mining 52 60 65 54 49 47 40
Public service and administration 8 7 5 7 9 10 12
Transportation and communications 5 4 3 4 5 5 5
Other, including manufacturing 18 15 13 20 17 20 26
Total 100* 100* 100* 100* 100* 100* 100*

*Percentages may not add to total because of rounding.

Source: Based on information from Central Bank of Libya, Annual Report, 1984, Tripoli, n.d., 31.

Table 7. Production of Selected Agricultural Commodities, 1981-84

Commodity Unit 1981 1982 1983 1984*
Barley thousands of metric tons 120.0 99.6 202.4 86.9
Beans -do- 7.0 7.0 8.4 9.5
Eggs millions 290.0 320.0 547.8 614.0
Fruits thousands of metric tons 195.0 730.9 781.4 819.9
Meat -do- 66.0 68.0 93.3 103.5
Milk -do- 112.0 115.2 139.8 145.0
Olives -do- 155.3 138.1 147.9 148.9
Tobacco thousands of kilograms 487.8 329.5 487.5 n.a.
Vegetables thousands of metric tons 739.8 730.9 781.4 819.9
Wheat -do- 123.1 183.4 208.9 183.6

n.a.--not available.
*Preliminary figures.

Source: Based on information from Central Bank of Libya, Annual Report, 1984, Tripoli, n.d., 33.

Table 8. Balance of Payments

(in millions of United States dollars)1
1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985
Current account (excluding exceptional financing)
Export of goods2 9,900 15,981 21,919 14,731 13,701 12,348 11,028 10,345
Import of goods2 -5,764 -8,647 -10,368 -14,563 -10,976 -8,978 -8,464 -5,705
Merchandise trade balance 4,136 7,334 11,551 168 2,725 3,370 2,564 4,640
Other goods, services, income (incl. shipping) net -2,348 -2,660 -2,204 -2,485 -2,611 -2,911 -2,767 -1,983
Private transfers -972 -859 -1,089 -1,570 -1,597 -2,045 -1,240 -767
Official transfers -78 -43 -46 -76 -78 -58 -81 n.a.
Current account balance 738 3,772 8,214 -3,963 -1,560 -1,643 -1,524 1,890
Capital account Long-term capital -1,068 -930 -1,372 -1,724 -282 -557 -218 -316
(of which direct investment) -720 -609 -1,136 -769 -411 -327 -18 -316
Short-term capital -236 -369 -331 1,203 -331 658 404 -90
Counterpart items (incl. valuation changes in reserves) -179 -189 -335 -678 56 -54 -241 -64
Liabilities on foreign reserves -101 n.a. n.a. 9 -12 -8 n.a. n.a.
Errors and omissions 47 -253 -104 -329 172 -236 -6 850
Total capital account -1,179 -1,363 -1,472 -879 -397 -197 -61 -380
Total changes in reserves3 -442 -2,409 -6,742 4,842 1,957 1,841 1,586 -2,270

n.a.--not available.
1 Converted from International Monetary Fund Special Drawing Rights (SDRs).
2 Free on board.
3 Because of rounding, total changes in reserves plus total capital account may not equal current account balance.

Source: Based on information from International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics, 1987, Washington, 1987, 457.

Table 9. Direction of Trade, 1978-84

(in percentages)
Country 1978 1979 1980 19 81 1982 1983 1984
Exports
Britain 1.7 1.1 0.4 0.9 4.2 2.8 2.1
France 3.6 3.6 2.7 2.8 4.0 6.9 8.1
Italy 16.2 18.5 15.3 18.5 19.4 21.8 27.5
Spain 6.3 4.8 5.1 7.4 7.6 7.9 10.5
Turkey 2.0 1.3 1.5 4.4 5.8 6.5 6.6
United States 37.5 33.5 33.0 30.3 3.5 0.0 0.0
West Germany 16.0 18.3 19.1 18.3 20.9 20.0 21.8
Other 16.7 18.9 22.9 17.4 34.6 34.1 23.4
Total exports 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Imports
Britain 7.1 7.4 7.5 6.8 6.2 4.6 4.1
France 8.3 9.0 7.5 6.5 5.7 3.7 2.6
Italy 24.1 26.6 28.6 30.6 28.8 23.4 20.6
Japan 7.5 7.5 5.9 7.6 3.8 3.8 2.6
United States 6.3 6.5 5.7 5.8 4.0 2.1 2.5
West Germany 12.8 16.3 14.1 10.6 15.8 9.4 10.0
Other 33.9 26.7 30.7 32.1 35.7 53.0 57.6
Total imports 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Sources: Based on information from The Economist Intelligence Unit, Quarterly Economic Review of Libya, London, 1983; The Economist Intelligence Unit, Quarterly Economic Review of Libya, London, 1985; and Middle East Economic Digest, Quarterly Economic Review of Libya, Tunisia, Malta: Annual Supplement 1984, London, 1984.

Table 10. Major Army Equipment, 1986

Type Estimated number in Inventory Country of Origin
Tanks
T-54 (100mm gun) n.a. Soviet Union
T-55 (100mm gun) 2,200 -do-
T-62 (115mm gun) n.a. -do-
T-72 (120mm gun) 160 -do-
Armored Vehicles
BRDM-2 reconnaissance 250 -do-
BMP personnel carrier 800 -do-
BTR-50/-60 personnel carrier 700 -do-
OT-62/-64 personnel carrier 400 Brazil
EE-9 reconnaissance n.a. -do-
EE-11 personnel carrier 100 -do-
Howitzers and Guns
D-74 122mm field gun 60 Soviet Union
M-46 130mm field gun 360 -do-
M-101 105mm howitzer 60 United States
M-1938, D-30 122mm howitzer 330 Soviet Union
M-1974 122mm howitzer, self-propelled 120 -do-
M-1973 152mm howitzer, self-propelled 48 -do-
Palmaris 155mm howitzer, self-propelled 200 Italy
Mortars
81mm, 120mm, 160mm, 240mm 450 various
Multiple Rocket Launchers
BM-21/RM-70 122mm n.a. n.a.
M-51 130mm 600 Soviet Union
Surface-to-Surface Missiles
FROG-7 48 -do-
Scud-B 70 -do-
Antitank Guided Missiles
Vigilant n.a. Britain
Milan 3,000 France
AT-3 Sagger n.a. Soviet Union
Surface-to-Air Missiles
SA-7 n.a. -do-
Crotale n.a. France

n.a.--not available.

Source: Based on information from International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance, 1986-1987, London, 1986, 103.

Table 11. Major Navy Equipment, 1986

Type Number in Inventory Country of Orogin
Frigates
Vosper with Otomat and Aspide missiles 1 Britain
Koni-class with SS-N-2C missiles 1 Soviet Union
Submarines
Foxtrot class 6 -do-
Mala class submersible 2 Yugoslavia
Corvettes
Wadi/Assad class with Otomat missiles 4 Italy
Nanuchka II with SS-N-2C missiles 3 Soviet Union
Fast-Attack Craft
La Combattante II with Otomat missiles 9 France
Osa II with Styx missiles 12 Soviet Union
Susah class 3 Britain
Coastal Patrol Boats
Gharyan and Benina classes 8 -do-
Landing Ships
PS-700 2 France
Polnochniy 3 Poland
Minesweepers
Natya 7 Soviet Union

Source: Based on information from International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance, 1986-1987, London, 1986, 103.

Table 12. Major Air Force Equipment, 1986

Type Number in Inventory Country of Origin
Bombers
Tu-22 Blinder 7 Soviet Union
Interceptors
Mirage F-1 32 France
MiG-23 Flogger 135 Soviet Union
MiG-25 Foxbat 55 -do-
Ground Attack
Mirage 5 63 France
Mirage F-1 14 -do-
MiG-23 Flogger 54 Soviet Union
Su-20/-22 Fitter 50 -do-
Counterinsurgency
J-1 Jastreb 30 Yugoslavia
Transport
An-26 Curl 20 Soviet Union
I1-76 Candid 15 -do-
C-130H Hercules 7 United States
Boeing 707 2 -do-
C-140 Jetstar 2 -do-
G-222 17 Italy
Helicopters
Mi-24 Hind 30 Soviet Union
Mi-14 Haze 30 -do-
SA-321 Super Frelon 8 France
CH-47C Chinook 19 United States
Mi-8 Hip 12 Soviet Union
AB-212 2 Italy
SA-316B Alouette III 10 France
AB-47 9 Italy
Trainers
MiG-25 Foxbat 5 Soviet Union
MiG-23 Flogger 14 -do-
G-2 Galeb 61 Yugoslavia
L-39 Albatros 100 Czechoslovakia
SF-260 120 Italy
CM-170 Magister 12 France

Source: Based on information from International Institute of Strategic Studies, The Military Balance, 1986-1987, London, 1986, 103-104.

 

 

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