The Making of Modern Ethiopia
Seventeenth-century painting depicting Saint George and
dragon, in the church of Debre Birhan Selassie in Gonder.
Courtesy United Nations Educational, Scientific, and
Cultural Organization (R. Garraud)
After the mid-nineteenth century, the different regions of
the Gonder state were gradually reintegrated to form the
nucleus of a modern state by strong monarchs such as
Tewodros II, Yohannis IV, and Menelik II, who resisted the
gradual expansion of European control in the Red Sea area
and at the same time staved off a number of other challenges
to the integrity of the reunited kingdom.
Data as of 1991