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Finland

 
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Appendix A. Tables

Table 1. Metric Conversion Coofficients and Factors

When you kowMultiply byTo find
Millimeters0.04inches
Centimeters0.39inches
Meters3.3feet
Kilometers0.62miles
Hectares2.47acres
Square kilometers0.39square miles
Cubic meters35.3cubic feet
Liters0.26gallons
Kilograms2.2pounds
Metric tons0.98long tons
1.1short tons
2,204pounds
Degrees Celsius (Centigrade)1.8 and add 32degrees Fahrenheit

Table 2. Finnish and Swedish Names of the Provinces and of Selected Place-names

FinnishSwedish
Provinces
AhvenanmaaAland
HameTavastehus
Keski-SuomiMellersta Finland
KuopioKuopio
KymiKymmene
LappiLappland
MikkeliSt. Michel
OuluUleaborg
Pohjois-KarjalaNorra Karelen
Turku ja PoriAbo och Bjorneborg
UusimaaNyland
VaasaVasa
Place-names
EspooEsbo
HameenlinnaTavastehus
HaminaFredrikshamn
HankoHango
HelsinkiHelsingfors
KaskinenKasko
KokkolaGamlakarleby
LahtiLahtis
LappeenrantaVillmanstrand
LoviisaLovisa
MaarianhaminaMariehamn
PoriBjorneborg
PietarsaariJakobstad
PorvooBorga
RaaheBrahestad
SaimaaSaima
SavonlinnaNyslott
TammissariEkenas
TampereTammerfors
TornioTornea
TurkuAbo
UusikaarlepyyNykarleby
UusikaupunkiNystad
VaasaVasa
VantaaVanda

Table 3. Presidents of Finland, 1919-

NameYears in OfficeFormer Party Allegiance
Kaarlo Juhu Stahlberg1919-25Young Finn
Lauri Kristian Relander1925-31Agrarian
Pehr Evind Svinhufvud1931-37National Coalition
Kyosti Kallio1937-40Agrarian
Risto Ryti1940-44National Progressive
Carl Gustaf Mannerheim1944-46none
Juhu Kusti Paasikivi1946-56National Coalition
Urho Kekkonen1956-81Center
Mauno Koivisto1982-Social Democratic

Table 4. Distribution of Parliamentary Seats, 1966-87

Party1966197019721975 197919831987
Finnish Social Democratic Party (SDP)55525554525756
National Coalition Party (KOK)26373435474453
Center Party (Kesk)49363539363840
Finnish People's Democratic League (SKDL)41363740352620
Swedish People's Party (SFP)1212101091012
Finnish Rural Party (SMP)1181827179
Finnish Christian League (SKL)0149935
Liberal People's Party (LKP)9879400
Social Democratic Union of Workers and Small Farmers (TPSL)7000000
Others0002155
TOTAL200200200200200200200

Source: Based on information from Finland, Central Statistical Office of Finland, Statistical Yearbook of Finland, 1987, Helsinki, 1987, 426.

Table 5. Coalition Governments, 1966-

Date of NominationPrime Minister (Party Affiliation1)Coalition Parties1
May 27, 1966Rafael Paasio (SDP)SDP, Kesk, SKDL, TPSL
March 22, 1968Mauno Koivisto (SDP)SDP, Kesk, SKDL, TPSL, SFP
May 14, 1970Teuvo Aura (none)civil-service caretaker
July 15, 1970Ahti Karjalainen (Kesk)SDP, Kesk, SKDL, LKP, SFP2
October 29, 1971Teuvo Aura (none)civil-service caretaker
February 23, 1972Rafael Paasio (SDP)SDP
September 4, 1972Kalevi Sorsa (SDP)SDP, Kesk, SFP, LKP
June 13, 1975Keijo Liinamaa (none)civil-service caretaker
November 30, 1975Martti Miettunen (Kesk)SDP, SKDL, Kesk, SFP, LKP
September 29, 1976Martti Miettunen (Kesk)Kesk, LKP, SFP
May 15, 1977Kalevi Sorsa (SDP)Kesk, SDP, SKDL, LKP, SFP3
May 25, 1979Mauno Koivisto (SDP)Kesk, SDP, SKDL, SFP
February 19, 1982Kalevi Sorsa (SDP)Kesk, SDP, SKDL, SFP4
May 6, 1983Kalevi Sorsa (SDP)SDP, Kesk, SMP, SFP
April 30, 1987Harri Holkeri (KOK)SDP, KOK, SMP, SFP

1 For full names of political parties, see Table 4.
2 After March 26, 1971, this government consisted of the SDP, Kesk, LKP, SFP.
3 After March 2, 1978, this government consisted of the Kesk, SDP, SKDL, and LKP.
4 After December 30, 1982, this government consisted of the Kesk, SDP, and SFP.

Source: Based on information from David Arter, Politics and Policy-Making in Finland, New York, 1987, 54; and Juhani Mylly and R. Michael Berry (eds.), Political Parties in Finland, Turku, Finland, 1984, 189.

Table 6. Parliamentary Election Results, 1979-87

PartyNumber of Votes (Percentage of Total Vote)
197919831987
Finnish Social Democratic Party (SDP)691,512 (23.9)795,953 (26.7)695,331 (24.1)
National Coalition Party (KOK)626,764 (21.7)659,078 (22.1) 666,236 (23.1)
Center Party (Kesk)500,478 (17.3)525,207 (17.6)507,460 (17.6)
Finnish People's Democratic League (SKDL)518,045 (17.9)400,930 (13.4)270,433 (9.4)
Finnish Rural Party (SMP)132,457 (4.6)288,711 (9.7)181,938 (6.3)
Swedish People's Party (SFP)122,418 (4.2)137,423 (4.6)152,597 (5.3)
Democratic Alternative (DEVA)122,181 (4.2)
The Greens115,988 (4.0)
Finnish Christian League (SKL)138,244 (4.8)90,410 (3.0)74,209 (2.6)
Finnish Pensioners' Party35,100 (1.2)
Liberal People's Party (LKP)106,560 (3.7)127,824 (1.0)
Constitutional Party of the Right (POP)34,958 (1.2)11,104 (0.4) 3,096 (0.1)
Unification Party of the Finnish People9,316 (0.3)2,335 (0.1)
Others13,694(0.5)68,543 (2.3)27,700 (1.0)
TOTAL22,894,446 (100.0)2,979,694 (100.0)2,880,093 (100.0)

1 Joined forces with Center Party for this election.
2 Figures do not add up to total because of rounding.

Source: Based on information from Finland, Central Statistical Office of Finland, Statistical Yearbook of Finland, 1982, Helsinki, 1982, 392; Finland, Central Statistical Office of Finland, Statistical Yearbook of Finland, 1987, Helsinki, 1987, 426-28.

Table 7. National Population and Percentage Living in Urban Municipalities, Selected Years, 1800-1985

YearPopulationPercentage Living in Urban Municipalities
1800832,7005.6
18501,636,9006.4
19002,655,90012.5
19203,147,60016.1
19403,695,60026.8
19504,029,80032.3
19604,446,20038.4
19704,598,30050.9
19804,787,80059.8
19854,910,70059.8

Source: Based on information from Finland, Central Statistical Office, Statistical Yearbook of Finland, 1987, Helsinki, 1987, 38.

Table 8. Population by Province, Selected Years, 1960-85

(in thousands)
Province1960197019801 985
Aland21.020.722.823.6
Hame580.8635.7664.3667.8
Keski-Suomi245.0238.0242.9247.7
Kuopio270.5255.5252.1256.0
Kymi337.8343.9344.3340.7
Lappi205.1197.1194.9200.9
Mikkeli234.6219.2208.6209.0
Oulu407.0401.2416.9432.1
Pohjois-Karjala207.7185.3176.7177.6
Turku ja Pori660.3675.1703.0713.0
Uusimaa832.91,005.21,128.51,187.9
Vaasa443.5421.4432.8444.4

Source: Based on information from Finland, Central Statistical Office, Statistical Yearbook of Finland, 1987, Helsinki, 1987, 39.

Table 9. Finnish Social Welfare Expenditures, Selected Years, 1974-85

YearAmount (in millions of Finnish marks1)As a Percentage of GDP2Social Welfare Expenditure Per Capita (in millions of Finnish marks1)Index of Per Capita Social Welfare Expenditure (1980 = 100)
197414,16815.73,02170
197623,86320.35,04987
197831,55722.06,63995
198040,04220.88,377100
198255,43322.511,484112
198472,30023.414,810124
198582,79924.616,891134

1 For value of the Finnish mark--see Glossary.
2 GDP--gross domestic product.

Source: Based on information from Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Statistical Secretariat, Yearbook of Nordic Statistics, 1987, Copenhagen, 1988, 316-17.

Table 10. Social Expenditures, 1980 and 1985

(in millions of Finnish marks)*
Item of Expenditure19801985
Health10,71723,157
Industrial injury insurance and occupational safety5781,139
Unemployment2,6585,589
Pensions, old-age, invalidity, etc.17,89936,050
Family and child welfare4,4689,915
General assistance203814
Benefits to military and war casualties1,0942,237
Estimated tax deduction for children7011,156
Administrative costs1,2862,742
TOTAL39,60482,799

*For value of the Finnish mark--see Glossary.

Source: Based on information from Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Statistical Secretariat, Yearbook of Nordic Statistics, 1982, Copenhagen, 1983, 278-79; and Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Statistical Secretariat, Yearbook of Nordic Statistics, 1987, Copenhagen, 1988, 313-14.

Table 11. Health Care Personnel and Facilities, Selected Years, 1960-85

1960197019801985
Physicians2,8274,7989,01611,072
Population per physician1,567960531444
Dentists1,8092,6953,9384,595
Nurses and midwives12,08320,78328,43243,9891
Pharmacies532562565577
Hospitals348357349372
Hospital beds, total41,02752,26458,59960,958
Private hospital beds2,5703,1453,0873,068
Patients admitted during year521,336786,769954,577984,0742
Hospital occupancy rate (in percentage)919385822
Average hospital stay in days26.221.919.118.32

1 Includes all qualified persons under age sixty, active and inactive.
2 1983 figures.

Source: Based on information from Finland, Central Statistical Office of Finland, Statistical Yearbook of Finland, 1987, Helsinki, 1987, 368, 370.

Table 12. Sex and Age Specific Death Rates by Cause, 1981-85

(Deaths per 100,000 mean population)
Age
Cause of Death0-3435-4445-5455-64 65+All
MenCardiovascular diseases7.883.2372.81,075.59,191.2514.3
Cancer8.533.8137.4502.73,566.5211.8
Other diseases31.147.3103.6224.63,144.9169.9
Violent deaths*65.5134.2170.3175.4543.0114.1
Total deaths112.9298.5784.11,978.216,445.61,010.1
WomenCardiovascular diseases2.621.771.9287.06,515.2484.4
Cancer6.638.9113.6271.01,720.0173.8
Other diseases23.520.642.3110.12,055.8157.3
Violent deaths*15.728.440.645.2278.629.6
Total deaths48.4109.6268.4713.310,569.6845.1

*Includes suicides, accidents, and poisonings.

Source: Based on information from Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Statistical Secretariat, Yearbook of Nordic Statistics, 1987, Copenhagen, 1988, 66-67.

Table 13. Gross Domestic Product (GDP), by Sector, Selected Years, 1950-86

195019601970 19801985 1986
Amount*Percentage of Total GDPAmount*Percentage of Total GDPAmount*Percentage of Total GDPAmount*Percentage of Total GDPAmount*Percentage of Total GDPAmount*Percentage of Total GDP
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing1,23425.92,79219.85,40813.9 16,5739.624,1678.123,9477.6
Industry
Mining and quarrying260.5970.73701.08610.51,3090.51,0390.3
Manufacturing1,32527.83,77326.811,71030.048,40828.175,18925.375,09623.8
Construction4749.91,3149.33,7029.513,6547.923,1387.824,3867.7
Electricity, gas, and water1002.14112.91,0372.74,9912.99,2963.18,9012.8
Total Industry1,92540.35,59539.716,81943.267,91439.4108,93236.7109,42234.6
Services
Transportation and communications3136.61,0437.52,7217.013,6447.9 23,6728.025,9928.2
Retail trade49210.31,40510.03,7879.720,26811.733,16311.236,94911.7
Banking, insurance, and real estate1823.81,2308.73,1398.119,27511.2 39,15913.247,41315.0
Government2084.35053.61,7024.428,61616.655,78218.857,01518.2
Other Services4188.81,51410.75,33013.76,2223.611,8364.014,9914.7
Total services1,61333.85,69740.516,67942.988,02551.0163,61255.2182,36057.8
TOTAL4,772100.014,084100.038,906100.0172,512100.0296,711100.0315,729100.0

* In millions of Finnish marks at current prices; for value of Finnish mark--see Glossary.

Table 14. Central Government Budget, 1982-86

(in millions of Finnish Marks1)
1982198319841985 19862
Current revenue
Direct taxes16,95319,29822,22525,38430,015
Indirect taxes33,20636,97543,53047,80352,498
Income from property and entrepreneurship1,9362,2282,649 2,9862,812
Other domestic current transfers2,8223,3013,8584,6384,269
TOTAL (current revenue)54,91761,80272,26280,81189,594
Current expenditure
Purchase of goods and services15,04417,37118,37420,67221,973
Subsidies7,3778,4599,3409,87810,990
Property income payable2,1713,0963,8244,5754,582
Current transfers26,70332,40935,98440,47143,267
TOTAL (current expenditure)51,29561,33567,52275,59680,812
Net current saving3,6224674,7405,2158,782
Depreciation1,0371,1721,2231,3531,487
GROSS SAVING4,6591,6395,9636,56810,269
Capital investment
Gross fixed capital formation3,2683,8223,7584,0244,321
Purchases of land, net170216134156156
Increase in stocks254335232193350
TOTAL (capital investment)3,6924,3734,1244,3734,827
Surplus on current and fixed investment account967-2,7341,8392,1955,442
Capital transfers to other sectors, net-1,849-1,625-1,732-1,805-1,699
Net lending-882-4,3591073903,743

1 For value of the Finnish mark--see Glossary.
2 Provisional figures.

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Finland, Paris, April 1988, 113.

Table 15. Labor Force, Selected Years, 1950-85

(in thousands of persons)
1950196019701980 1985
Labor force
Employed
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing909.3720.8429.0279.2241.8
Industry412.7439.3549.5584.7554.2
Construction125.4176.2176.8156.7168.4
Commerce187.6276.4399.8425.8483.4
Transportation, communications, etc.106.7128.8150.2175.7172.6
Services214.2285.5383.9550.1648.9
Other28.46.229.050.77.5
Total employed1,984.32,033.22,118.22,222.92,276.8
Unemployedn.a.n.a.144.7114.0139.1
Total labor forcen.a.n.a.2,262.92,336.92,415.9
Population4,029.84,446.24,598.34,787.84,910.7
Working-age population (15-75)2,740.73,003.03,354.43,625.13,711.4
Labor force participation rate (percentage)n.a.n.a.67.564.565.1
Unemployment rate (percentage)n.a.n.a.6.44.95.8

n.a.--Not available.

Source: Based on information from Finland, Central Statistical Office, Statistical Yearbook of Finland, 1985-86, Helsinki, 1986, 6, 44, 302, and additional information from Embassy of Finland, Washington.

Table 16. Production of Major Farm Commodities, Selected Years, 1980-86

(in thousands of tons)
Commodity198019851986
Grains
Barley1,5341,8541,714
Oats1,2581,2181,174
Rye1247270
Wheat357473529
Other Grains282732
Oilseeds
Rapeseed8895105
Root crops
Potatoes736600700
Sugar Beets900704843
Fruits and vegetables
Apples81010
Tomatoes202020
Animal products
Beef and Veal112125124
Cow's milk3,2773,0833,044
Eggs798581
Mutton and Lamb111
Pork169171172
Poultry152021

Source: Based on information from United States, Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, World Indices of Agricultural and Food Production, 1976-1985, Washington, 1986, 58, and additional data from the Economic Research Service.

Table 17. Use of Arable Land, Selected Years, 1950-85

(in thousands of hectares)
Crop1950196019701980 1985
Grains
Barley115.1212.7403.5533.4645.7
Oats437.4490.3524.3447.8411.3
Rye133.3110.765.953.330.9
Wheat188.7180.8175.5124.3157.0
Other grains14.724.327.712.19.2
Oilseeds
Rapeseedn.a.3.46.655.357.7
Root crops
Potatoes95.886.460.140.939.4
Sugar beets10.114.914.931.731.2
Animal feed
Fodder21.815.213.6n.a.n.a.
Hay1,001.41,139.0873.3477.8397.7
Silage20.912.152.3233.6222.9
Pasture220.9237.8230.7203.3169.8
Other crops92.869.7170.9246.9167.9
Fallow78.056.747.8102.369.7
TOTAL2,430.92,654.02,667.12,562.72,410.4

n.a.--Not available.

Source: Based on information from Finland, Central Statistical Office of Finland, Statistical Yearbook of Finland, 1985-86, Helsinki, 1986, 84-85.

Table 18. Industrial Production by Commodity, 1982-86

CommodityUnitYear
198219831984 19851986
Wood products
Cellulose1,000 tons4,0484,3844,7434,7344,686
Fiberboard-do-13613714010986
Mechanical pulp for sale-do-3631373437
Paper and paperboard-do-5,7526,2956,6617,4127,491
Plywood and veneers1,000 m3537582551513568
Sawn goods-do-5,8227,3277,6116,3506,449
Chemicals
Fertilizers1,000 tons1,5111,7551,7781,7521,669
Nitric acid-do-409541545484508
Oil products-do-8,6029,0108,7658,8807,841
Sulphuric acid-do-1,0321,1491,1651,4391,359
Metal products
Copper cathodes-do-48.055.457.358.864.2
Crude steel-do-2,4142,4162,6322,5192,588
Hot rolled steel products-do-1,8471,9641,9852,0631,996
Nickel cathodes-do-12.314.515.315.717.8
Pig iron-do-1,9441,8982,0341,8901,979
Zinc-do-155155159160155
Other
Cement-do-1,9071,9791,6921,6231,261
Cotton fabrics-do-16.617.216.59.18.1

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Finland, 1988-89, London, 1988, 18.

Table 19. Geographical Distribution of Trade, 1982-87

(in percentage of total value of imports or exports)
1982198319841985 19861987
Exports
EC134.936.237.937.038.342.2
EFTA219.218.219.219.722.022.7
Comecon328.827.720.823.422.017.1
Soviet Union26.726.119.021.520.315.4
Sweden12.012.312.313.214.815.0
Britain10.810.312.010.810.511.4
West Germany9.19.59.69.39.710.9
Francen.a.n.a.n.a.3.94.55.3
United States3.24.08.26.35.45.2
Norway4.93.34.54.24.54.7
Denmark2.63.64.14.04.03.9
Netherlands3.14.03.53.33.53.6
Imports
EC133.533.635.638.743.144.4
EFTA217.917.317.917.219.318.5
West Germany13.313.113.914.917.017.4
Comecon328.028.526.224.118.217.0
Soviet Union24.625.723.121.015.314.4
Sweden12.211.212.311.813.612.9
Britain7.36.67.77.26.57.1
Japann.a.n.a.n.a.5.36.57.1
United Statesn.a.n.a.5.05.44.85.2
Francen.a.n.a.n.a.3.44.54.3
Netherlands2.62.72.72.93.13.1
Denmark2.31.72.42.52.82.8
Norway2.12.62.12.42.22.2

n.a.--Not available.
1 EC--European Community (see Glossary).
2 EFTA--European Free Trade Association (see Glossary).
3 Comecon--Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (see Glossary).

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Finland, 1988-89, London, 1988, 27-8.

Table 20. Balance of Payments, 1978-86

(in millions of United States dollars)
1978197919801981 19821983198419851986
Exports,f.o.b.18,50811,09814,11413,66912,84812,18713,098 13,28616,026
Imports, f.o.b.17,41710,71514,76013,32712,68212,03611,60712,37514,402
TRADE BALANCE1,091383-6463421661511,4919111,624
Services, net-374-429-634-643-851-948-1,334-1,463-2,167
BALANCE ON GOODS AND SERVICES717-46-1,280-301-685-797157-552-543
Transfers
Private transfers, net-15-16-20-10-27-23-22-6-118
Official transfers, net-37-95-102-106-107-120-152-171-227
TOTAL TRANSFERS-52-111-122-116-134-143-174-177-345
CURRENT ACCOUNT BALANCE665-157-1,402-417-819-940-17-729-888
Long-term capital
Private784-40-613954042445771,107760
Official211728211016322910997-45-108
TOTAL LONG-TERM CAPITAL901242495586333536741,062652
BASIC BALANCE1,56685-1,353141-186-587657333-236
Short-term capital
Non-monetary-548-206388149-158-51636-298-191
Private monetary institutions-179295994-98310228347850-2,121
Errors and omissions196-48226201-3158-59-263985
TOTAL SHORT-TERM CAPITAL-531-41 1,608252149335924289-1,327
Net transactions of monetary authorities1,035126255393-37-2521,581622-1,563
Use of IMF3 credit (net)-43-1110-17-41-15000
Miscellaneous official accounts4-32228926-61930151193-9-743
Allocations of SDRs5036363000000
CHANGE IN RESERVES6 (+ = increase)670340318-210223-2171,774613-2,307

1 f.o.b.--free on board.
2 Includes government bond issues.
3 IMF--International Monetary Fund (see Glossary).
4 Includes payments agreements (tied currencies).
5 SDRs--special drawing rights.
6 Convertible reserves.

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Finland, Paris, April 1988, 114.

Table 21. Daily Newspapers with Largest Circulations, 1986

NewspaperPlace of PublicationFrequency of Appearance per WeekParty Affiliation*Circulation
Helsingin SanomatHelsinki7none430,251
Ilta-SanomatHelsinki6none193,971
AamulehtiTampere7KOK140,918
Turun SanomatTurku7none131,630
Maaseudun TulevaisuusHelsinki3none130,894
Uusi SuomiHelsinki7none92,596
KalevaOulu7none88,177
Savon SanomatKuopio7Kesk85,167
IltalehtiHelsinki6none78,949
KeskisuomalainenJyvaskyla7Kesk76,283
KotimaaHelsinki3none76,064
KauppalehtiHelsinki5none72,983
Etela-Suomen SanomatLahti7none65,145
HufvudstadsbladetHelsinki7none65,089
PohjalainenVaasa7KOK64,008
Satakunnan KansaPori7KOK60,807
IlkkaSeinajoki7KOK53,465
KarjalainenJoensuu7KOK53,364
Kansan UutisetHelsinki6SKDL41,504
Lapin KansaRovaniemi7none40,407
Pohjolan SanomatKemi7Kesk39,149
Etela-SaimaaLappeenranta7Kesk34,304
Suomen SosialidemokraattiHelsinki5SDP34,099
KeskipohjanmaaKokkola7Kesk33,064
SuomenmaaHelsinki5Kesk32,802

*For full names of political parties, see Table 4.

Source: Based on information from Finland, Central Statistical Office of Finland, Statistical Yearbook of Finland, 1987, Helsinki, 1987, 410.

Table 22. Major Army Equipment, 1988

TypeEstimated Number in InventoryCountry of Manufacture
Armored vehicles
T-54/T-55 main battle tank100Soviet Union
T-72 main battle tank50-do-
PT-76 light reconnaissance tank15-do-
BMP-1 infantry combat vehicle30-do-
BTR-50P armored personnel carrier, tracked90-do-
BTR-60P armored personnel carrier, 8 wheeled60-do-
A-180 Pasi armored personnel carrier, 6 wheeled59Finland
Towed artillery
M-37, M-61 105mm howitzer70+-do-
M-38, D-30 122mm howitzern.a.Soviet Union
M-54 130mm field gun170-do-
M-40 150mm howitzern.a.Germany (World War II)
M-38 152mm howitzer240Soviet Union
M-74 155mm howitzer12-do-
Coast artillery
D-10T tank turrets, 100mmn.a.-do-
M-60 122mm gunn.a.Finland
130mm turret gun170-do-
152mm turret gun240-do-
Surface-to-surface missiles (coastal defense)
RBS-15n.a.Sweden
Mortars
M-56, M-64, M-71 81mm800Finland
M-43 120mm550Soviet Union and Finland
Antitank wire-guided missiles
AT-4 (SPIGOT)24Soviet Union
I-TOW (tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided)12United States
Recoilless rifles
M-55 55mmn.a.Soviet Union
SM 58-61 95mm100Finland
Air defense guns
ZU-23 23mmn.a.Soviet Union
Oerlikon GDF-002 35mmn.a.Switzerland
Bofors L-60/Bofors L-70 40mm100+Sweden
S-60 57mm towed12Soviet Union
ZSU 57-2 self-propelled12-do-
Surface-to-air missiles
SA-3 GOAn.a.-do-
SA-7/SA-14 shoulder-firedn.a.-do-

n.a.--Not available.

Source: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1988-89, London, 1988, 88; and Tomas Ries, Cold Will: The Defence of Finland, London, 1988, 215-6.

Table 23. Major Naval Equipment, 1988

Type*NumberDate Commissioned
Corvettes
Turunmaa class, 660 tons, 120mm gun, antisubmarine rocket launchers21968, modernized 1984-86
Missile craft
Helsinki class fast attack, 300 tons, eight RBS-15 SF missiles41981-86
Helsinki-2 class, 200 tons4projected 1990-92
Tuima class 210 tons (Soviet OSA-II), four SS-N-2A Styx missiles4purchased 1974-75
Isku (experimental), four SS-N-2A Styx missiles11970
Fast attack craft (gun) Nuoli class, 40 ton61961-66, modernized 1979
Ruissalo class, 130 ton, antisubmarine minelaying31959, modernized 1977-80
Rihtniemi class, 110 ton, antisubmarine minelaying21957, modernized 1981
Minelayers
Pohjanmaa, 1100 ton11981
Keihassalmi, 360 ton11957
Minesweepers
Kuhu class, inshore61974-75
Kiiski class71984
Landing craft, utility
Kampela class, 90 ton31976-79
Kala class, 60 ton61956-59
Kave class, 27 ton51956-60
Coast Guard
Large offshore patrol craft, 700 ton21986-87
Large patrol craft51963-87
Coastal patrol craft2415 in 1981-86, others earlier

*All ships constructed in Finland except Tuima class missile craft, which were built in the Soviet Union.

Source: Based on information from Jane's Fighting Ships, 1988-89, London, 1988, 155-62.

Table 24. Major Air Force Equipment, 1988

TypeNumberCountry of ManufactureFirst Acquired
Fighters-interceptors*
MiG-21bis30Soviet Union1978
SAAB J-35 Draken41Sweden1974
Training
MiG-21 U/UM4Soviet Union1974
SK-35C Draken4Sweden1972
Hawk MK-5139Britain1980
L-70 Vinka30Finland1979
Reconnaissance
Hawk MK-518Britain1980
Transport
F-27 Fokker, medium3Netherlands1980
Mi-8 helicopter6Soviet Union1973
Hughes 500 helicopter2United States1975
Liaison
CM-170 Magister5France1964
Piper (Cherokee Arrow and Chieftain)14United Statesn.a.

*Some in conversion and training status.

Source: Tomas Ries, Cold Will: The Defence of Finland, London, 1988, 217-8, and The Military Balance, 1988-89, London, 1988, 88.


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