Appendix B -- Finland
of Friendship, Co-operation, and Mutual Assistance between
the Republic of Finland and the Union of Soviet Socialist
The President of the Republic of Finland and the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.;
Desiring further to develop friendly relations between the
Republic of Finland and the U.S.S.R.;
Being convinced that the strengthening of good neighbourly
relations and co-operation between the Republic of Finland and
the U.S.S.R. lies in the interest of both countries;
Considering Finland's desire to remain outside the
conflicting interests of the Great Powers; and
Expressing their firm endeavour to collaborate towards the
maintenance of international peace and security in accordance
with the aims and principles of the United Nations Organization;
Have for this purpose agreed to conclude the present Treaty
and have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries:
The President of the Republic of Finland: Mauno Pekkala,
Prime Minister of the Republic of Finland;
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.:
Viacheslav Mihailovich Molotov, Vice-Chairman of the Council of
Ministers of the U.S.S.R. and Minister for Foreign Affairs,
who, after exchange of their full powers, found in good and
due form, have agreed on the following provisions:
In the eventuality of Finland, or the Soviet Union through
Finnish territory, becoming the object of an armed attack by
Germany or any State allied with the latter, Finland will, true
to its obligations as an independent State, fight to repel the
attack. Finland will in such cases use all its available forces
for defending its territorial integrity by land, sea and air, and
will do so within the frontiers of Finland in accordance with
obligations defined in the present Treaty and, if necessary, with
the assistance of, or jointly with, the Soviet Union.
In the cases aforementioned the Soviet Union will give
Finland the help required, the giving of which will be subject to
mutual agreement between the Contracting Parties.
The High Contracting Parties shall confer with each other if
it is established that the threat of an armed attack in Article
1. is present.
The High Contracting Parties give assurance of their
intention loyally to participate in all measures towards the
maintenance of international peace and security in conformity
with the aims and principles of the United Nations Organization.
The High Contracting Parties confirm their pledge, given
under Article 3. of the Peace Treaty signed in Paris on February
10th, 1947, not to conclude any alliance or join any coalition
directed against the other High Contracting Party.
The High Contracting Parties give assurance of the decision
to act in a spirit of co-operation and friendship towards the
further development and consolidation of economic and cultural
relations between Finland and the Soviet Union.
The High Contracting Parties pledge themselves to observe the
principle of the mutual respect of sovereignty and integrity and
that of non-interference in the internal affairs of the other
The execution of the present Treaty shall take place in
accordance with the principles of the United Nations
The present Treaty shall be ratified and remains in force ten
years after the date of its coming into force. The Treaty shall
come into force upon the exchange of the instruments of
ratification, the exchange taking place in the shortest time
possible in Helsinki.
Provided neither of the High Contracting Parties has
denounced it one year before the expiration of the said ten-year
period, the Treaty shall remain in force for subsequent five-year
periods until either High Contracting Party one year before the
expiration of such five-year periods in writing notifies its
intention of terminating the validity of the Treaty.
In witness hereof the Plenipotentiaries have signed the
present Treaty and affixed their seals.
Done in the City of Moscow on the sixth day of April 1948 in
two copies, in the Finnish and the Russian languages, both texts
The Plenipotentiary of the President the Republic of Finland:
The Plenipotentiary of the of Presidium of the Supreme