You are here -allRefer - Reference - Country Study & Country Guide - Haiti >

allRefer Reference and Encyclopedia Resource

allRefer    
allRefer
   


-- Country Study & Guide --     

 

Haiti

 
Country Guide
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Armenia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belize
Bhutan
Bolivia
Brazil
Bulgaria
Cambodia
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Caribbean Islands
Comoros
Cyprus
Czechoslovakia
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
Georgia
Germany
Germany (East)
Ghana
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Cote d'Ivoire
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Laos
Lebanon
Libya
Lithuania
Macau
Madagascar
Maldives
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Nepal
Nicaragua
Nigeria
North Korea
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Romania
Russia
Saudi Arabia
Seychelles
Singapore
Somalia
South Africa
South Korea
Soviet Union [USSR]
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Syria
Tajikistan
Thailand
Turkmenistan
Turkey
Uganda
United Arab Emirates
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela
Vietnam
Yugoslavia
Zaire

Haiti

Welfare

In the 1980s, public assistance continued to be limited. The government provided pensions to some retired public officials and military officers, but it did not guarantee them to civil servants. A social-insurance system for employees of industrial, commercial, and agricultural firms provided pensions at age fifty-five, after twenty years of service, and compensation for total incapacity, after fifteen years of service. A system of work-injury benefits also covered private and public employees, providing partial or total disability compensation. These programs were administered by the Ministry of Social Affairs. In general, however, the dearth of social programs offered by the government forced most Haitians to rely mainly on their families and on the services provided by nongovernmental organizations. As has been true in so many other areas of life, Haitians have cultivated self-reliance in the face of hardship, scarcity, and the inadequacy of existing institutions.

***

Among works on Haitian society in English, James G. Leyburn's The Haitian People continues to be a useful overview. The introduction, by Sidney Mintz, to the second edition is one of the most lucid analyses of the Duvalier regimes. Another classic is Melville J. Herskovits's ethnography, Life in a Haitian Valley, detailing the life of peasants and townspeople in the 1930s. More recent analyses of Haitian society and economics include Mats Lundahls's Peasants and Poverty: A Study of Haiti, which views Haitian economic decline in terms of overpopulation, environmental degradation, and governmental passivity over the course of Haiti's history. A contrasting analysis can be found in Alex Dupuy's Haiti in the World Economy: Class, Race, and Underdevelopment Since 1970, which examines the country's social and economic problems primarily in terms of Haiti's relations with foreign powers.

The volume of essays edited by Charles R. Foster and Albert Valdman, Haiti--Today and Tomorrow: An Interdisciplinary Study, provides a useful discussion of many aspects of Haitian society in the 1980s, including issues of language, education, religion, cultural orientation, male-female relationships, migration, and the economy. Simon Fass's Political Economy in Haiti: The Drama of Survival is the first detailed examination of the urban lower class. The work of David Nicholls, especially his From Dessalines to Duvalier: Race, Colour, and National Independence in Haiti, provides an analysis of political and social ideologies through the course of Haitian history. For an overview of Haitian immigrants in the United States, the chapter on Haitians in David W. Haines's Refugees in the United States: A Reference Handbook is helpful. (For further information and complete citations, see Bibliography.)

Data as of December 1989

Haiti - TABLE OF CONTENTS

Haiti: The Society and Its Environment


Go Up - Top of Page

Make allRefer Reference your HomepageAdd allRefer Reference to your FavoritesGo to Top of PagePrint this PageSend this Page to a Friend


Information Courtesy: The Library of Congress - Country Studies


Content on this web site is provided for informational purposes only. We accept no responsibility for any loss, injury or inconvenience sustained by any person resulting from information published on this site. We encourage you to verify any critical information with the relevant authorities.

 

 

 
 


About Us | Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy | Links Directory
Link to allRefer | Add allRefer Search to your site

allRefer
All Rights reserved. Site best viewed in 800 x 600 resolution.