Armed Forces: Armed forces of India total active-duty personnel in 1994 approximately 1,104,000. Component services: army, 940,000; navy, 54,000, of which 5,000 naval aviation and 1,000 marines; air force, 110,000. Reserve forces personnel total 1,964,554; also twelve paramilitary forces under control of various ministries with total strength of 762,735 in 1994.
Military Units: Army structured as twelve corps (twenty-two infantry divisions) under central control, organized into five tactical area commands. Navy units in three area commands. Air Force units in five operational commands. Police commands coincide with state boundaries.
Military Equipment: Army main battle tanks, armored personnel carriers (APCs), towed and self-propelled artillery, helicopters. Navy: aircraft carriers, submarines, destroyers, frigates, fast-attack patrol craft, amphibious ships, fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, and marine reconnaissance aircraft. Air Force: ground-attack fighters, transports, trainers, and helicopters. Emphasis on domestic production of most items; most imports from Britain, France, Germany, and Russia. Older equipment from Soviet Union.
Military Budget: Approximately US$6.9 billion, or less than 5 percent of gross national product in FY 1994.
Foreign Military Relations: Long-term ties with Soviet Union and, later, Russia. Occasional joint operations with Indian Ocean nations and United States. Peacekeeping forces sent to Sri Lanka and Maldives. Since 1950 Indian military and police contingents also have participated in UN peacekeeping forces in Korea, Suez Canal, Sinai Peninsula, Gaza, Congo, Lebanon, Yemen, West Irian, Iran-Iraq border, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Namibia, Angola, former Yugoslavia, Mozambique, Cambodia, and Somalia.
Internal Security Forces: Paramilitary forces guard coasts, borders, and sensitive military areas; paramilitary sent by central government to aid local police forces and against insurgencies. Provincial Armed Constabulary and Central Reserve Police Force handle police duties.
Data as of September 1995