- barrels per day
Production of crude oil and petroleum products is frequently
measured in barrels per day, often abbreviated bpd or bd.
A barrel is a volume measure of forty-two United States gallons.
Conversion of barrels to tons depends on the density of the
specific product. About 7.3 barrels of average crude oil weigh
one ton. Heavy crude would be about seven barrels per ton.
Light products, such as gasoline and kerosene, average close
to eight barrels per ton.
A tribal leader; term is used by some Turkic-speaking tribes.
- development plan
Iran's development plans have been of varying length and
had various names. The plans and their dates under Mohammad
Reza Shah were as follows: First Development Plan--September
21, 1948, to September 20, 1955; Second Development Plan--September
21, 1955, to September 20, 1962; Third Development Plan--September
21, 1962, to March 20, 1968; Fourth Development Plan--March
21, 1968, to March 20, 1973; and Fifth Development Plan--March
21, 1973, to March 20, 1978. The Sixth Development Plan, beginning
March 21, 1978, was never completed because of the 1979 Revolution.
The First Development Plan of the Islamic Republic ran from
March 21, 1983, through March 20, 1988.
An expert in religious jurisprudence, specifically a Shia
cleric whose mastery of the Quran, the traditions of the Prophet
and the Twelve Imans, and the codices of Shia Islamic law
permit him to render binding interpretations of religious
laws and regulations.
- fiscal year (FY)
Corresponds to the Iranian calendar year, which begins March
21 and ends March 20.
- gross domestic product (GDP)
The total value of goods and services produced within a
country's borders during a fixed period, usually one year.
Obtained by adding the value contributed by each sector of
the economy in the form of compensation of employees, profits,
and depreciation (consumption of capital). Subsistence production
is included and consists of the imputed value of production
by the farm family for its own use and the imputed rental
value of owner-occupied dwellings.
- gross national product (GNP)
Gross domestic product (q.v.) plus the income received
from abroad by residents, less payments remitted abroad to
Tradition based on the precedent of Muhammad's words that
serves as one of the sources of Islamic Law (shariat).
Modesty in attire; defined by the Shia clergy to mean that
women and girls must cover all their hair and flesh except
for hands and face when in public. It is not necessary to
wear a chador (a cloth serving as a cloak) to conform
with hejab, although the two terms often are equated.
Literally, a follower of the party of God. Hezbollahis
originally were followers of a particular religious figure
who eventually came to constitute an unofficial political
party. They were not an irregular or paramilitary group.
Among Twelver Shias the principal meaning is a designation
of one of the twelve legitimate successors of the Prophet
Muhammad. Also used by both Shias (q.v.) and Sunnis
(q.v.) to designate a congregational prayer leader
- International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Established along with the World Bank (q.v.) in
1945, the IMF is a specialized agency affiliated with the
United Nations and is responsible for stabilizing international
exchange rates and payments. The main business of the IMF
is the provision of loans to its members (including industrialized
and developing countries) when they experience balance of
payments difficulties. These loans frequently carry conditions
that require substantial internal economic adjustments by
the recipients, most of which are developing countries.
- Islamic clergy
The religious leaders of Shia (q.v.) Islam, which
group includes numerous mullahs (q.v.), who in general
possess only rudimentary religious education; mujtahids,
a relatively small body of religious scholars, the majority
of whom are accorded the title of hojjatoleslam;
and a small number of the most learned and pious of the mujtahids,
who are given the title of ayatollah.
The struggle to establish the law of God on earth, often
interpreted to mean holy war.
The village headman in rural Iran; also used as the title
for leaders of some tribal clans.
A religious college or seminary that trains men in Islamic
An agreed upon amount of money and/or property that a groom
provides his bride as specified in the marriage contract.
the term is used in two senses: the legislative body of imperial
Iran, which included both a senate--composed of members appointed
by the shah and elected members--and an elected lower house
of representatives; and, the lower house alone. The Senate
provided for in the constitution did not come into existence
until 1950; the Senate was dissolved under Mossadeq but was
revived later. Khomeini's revolutionary Constitution of 1979
eliminated the Senate, leaving only the lower house, or Majlis,
Primary school operated by Shia clergy.
Literally, the disinherited; originally a religious term
for the poor, which has become popularized.
Generic term for a member of the Islamic clergy; usually
refers to a preacher or other low-ranking cleric who has not
earned the right to interpret religious laws.
A temporary marriage, the duration of which is stipulated
by contract. Only Twelver Shias (q.v.) recognize
- Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Coordinates petroleum policies of thirteen major producing
countries. In early 1987 members included Algeria, Ecuador,
Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar,
Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela.
Iranian currency. Average official rate in 1987 was 71.46
rials to US$1. Official exchange rate, as of December 19,
1984, is determined daily based on Special Drawing Right (q.v.)
rial rate and applies to all foreign exchange transactions.
In practice, the unofficial black market rate is as much as
ten times the official exchange rate.
- shariat (sharia in Arabic)
Islamic canon law. Among Shias (q.v.) the shariat
includes the Quran and the authenticated sayings of the Prophet
(hadith) and the Twelve Imams (q.v.).
Leader or chief. Term is used by Iranian Arabs for tribal
chiefs and by Lurs and Kurds for religious leaders.
- Shia (or Shiite)
A member of the smaller of the two great divisions of Islam.
The Shias supported the claims of Ali and his line to presumptive
right to the caliphate and leadership of the world Muslim
community, and on this issue they divided from the Sunnis
(q.v.) in the first great schism of Islam. Later
schisms have produced further divisions among the Shias.
- Special Drawing Right (SDR)
A standardized monetary unit used by the International Monetary
Fund (q.v.). It is standardized against all currencies
using it instead of the home country's currency and is drawn
from a pool of contributions by member countries.
A member of the larger of the two great divisions of Islam.
The Sunnis, who rejected the claim of Ali's line, believe
that they are the true followers of the sunna, the guide to
proper behavior composed of the Quran and the hadith (q.v.).
- topping plant
A plant that removes only the lightest commodity from crude
- velayat-e faqih
The guardianship of the religious jurist. Concept elaborated
by Ayatollah Khomeini to justify political rule by the clergy.
- White Revolution
Term used by Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi to designate the
program of economic and social reforms he initiated in 1963.
- World Bank
Informal name used to designate a group of three affiliated
international institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction
and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association
(IDA), and the International Finance Corporation (IFC). The
IBRD, established in 1945, has the primary purpose of providing
loans to developing countries for productive projects. The
IDA, a legally separate loan fund but administered by the
staff of the IBRD, was set up in 1960 to furnish credits to
the poorest developing countries on much easier terms than
those of conventional IBRD loans. The IFC, founded in 1956,
supplements the activities of the IBRD through loans and assistance
specifically designed to encourage the growth of productive
private enterprises in the less developed countries. The president
and certain senior officers of the IBRD hold the same positions
in the IFC. The three institutions are owned by the governments
of the countries that subscribe their capital. To participate
in the World Bank group, member states must first belong to
the International Monetary Fund (IMF--q.v.).