Governorates of As Sulaymaniyah, Dahuk, and Irbil, the Kurdish
majority area. In this region--popularly known as Kurdistan--Kurdish
has status of official language, and residents enjoy limited
autonomy from central government.
Production of crude oil and petroleum products is frequently
measured in barrels per day, often abbreviated bpd or bd.
A barrel is a volume measure of forty-two United States gallons.
Conversion of barrels to metric tons depends on the density
of a specific product. About 7.3 barrels of average crude
oil, or about 7 barrels of heavy crude oil, weigh 1 metric
ton. Light products, such as gasoline and kerosene, average
close to eight barrels per metric ton.
Currency unit consisting of 1,000 fils or 20 dirhams. When
officially introduced at the end of the British mandate (1932),
the dinar was equal to, and was linked to, the British pound
sterling, which at that time was equal to US$4.86. Iraqi dinar
(ID) equaled US$4.86 between 1932 and 1949 and after devaluation
in 1949, equaled US$2.80 between 1949 and 1971. Iraq officially
uncoupled the dinar from the pound sterling as a gesture of
independence in 1959, but the dinar remained at parity with
the pound until the British unit of currency was again devalued
in 1967. One Iraqi dinar remained equal to US$2.80 until December
1971, when major realignments of world currencies began. Upon
the devaluation of the United States dollar in 1973, the Iraqi
dinar appreciated to US$3.39. It remained at this level until
the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq War in 1980. In 1982 Iraq devalued
the dinar by 5 percent, to a value equal to US$3.22, and sustained
this official exchange rate without additional devaluation
despite mounting debt. In early 1988, the official dinar-dollar
exchange rate was still ID1 to US$3.22; however, with estimates
of the nation's inflation rate ranging from 25 percent to
50 percent per year in 1985 and 1986, the dinar's real transaction
value, or black market exchange rate, was far lower-- only
about half the 1986 official rate.
A value measure of the flow of domestic goods and services
produced by an economy over a period of time, such as a year.
Only output values of goods for final consumption and for
intermediate production are assumed to be included in final
prices. GDP is sometimes aggregated and shown at market prices,
meaning that indirect taxes and subsidies are included; when
these have been eliminated, the result is GDP at factor cost.
The word gross indicates that deductions for depreciation
of physical assets have not been made.
GDP (q.v.) plus the net income or loss stemming
from transactions with foreign countries. GNP is the broadest
measurement of the output of goods and services by an economy.
It can be calculated at market prices, which include indirect
taxes and subsidies. Because indirect taxes and subsidies
are only transfer payments, GNP is often calculated at factor
cost, removing indirect taxes and subsidies.
Literally to migrate, to sever relations, to leave one's
tribe. Throughout the Muslim world hijra refers to the migration
of Muhammad and his followers to Medina. In this sense the
word has come into European languages as hegira, and it is
usually, and somewhat misleadingly, translated as flight.
A word used in several senses. In general use and in lower
case, it means the leader of congregational prayers; as such
it implies no ordination or special spiritual powers beyond
sufficient education to carry out this function. It is also
used figuratively by many Sunni (q.v.) Muslims to
mean the leader of the Islamic community. Among Shias (q.v.)
the word takes on many complex meanings; in general, it indicates
that particular descendent of the House of Ali ibn Abu Talib,
who is believed to have been God's designated repository of
the spiritual authority inherent in that line. The identity
of this individual and the means of ascertaining his identity
have been major issues causing divisions among Shias.
Established along with the World Bank in 1945, the IMF is
a specialized agency affiliated with the United Nations and
is responsible for stabilizing international exchange rates
and payments. The main business of the IMF is the provision
of loans to its members (including industrialized and developing
countries) when they experience balance of payments difficulties.
These loans frequently carry conditions that require substantial
internal economic adjustments by the recipients, most of which
are developing countries.
A member of the smaller of the two great divisions of Islam.
The Shias supported the claims of Ali and his line to presumptive
right to the caliphate and to leadership of the Muslim community,
and on this issue they divided from the Sunni (q.v.)
in the great schism within Islam. Later schisms have produced
further divisions among the Shias over the identity and the
number of Imams (q.v.). Shias revere Twelve Imams,
the last of whom is believed to be in hiding.
A member of the larger of the two great divisions of Islam.
The Sunnis supported the traditional method of election to
the caliphate, and they accepted the Umayyad line that began
with caliph Muawiyah in 661. On this issue they divided from
the Shias (q.v.) in the great schism within Islam.
- Mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large
flooded areas; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey
Climate- Mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern
mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters
with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive
flooding in central and southern Iraq
- Strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian
- 1,015 km note: Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by maritime traffic
for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 m and is in use; Tigris and Euphrates
Rivers have navigable sections for shallow-draft boats; Shatt al Basrah canal
was navigable by shallow-draft craft before closing in 1991 because of the Gulf
Courtesy: The Library of Congress - Country Studies
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