Energy and Fuels
Among the most pressing difficulties facing the
economy is a near total lack of energy resources.
primary energy sources consist of small hydroelectric
plants on the Nistru River at Dubasari and Camenca
Russian); minor thermal electric power plants at Balti,
(Rybnitsa, in Russian), Ungheni (Ungeny, in Russian), and
Chisinau; and firewood, all of which combine to meet only
percent of domestic needs. A coal-fired power plant was
construction at Cuciurgan (Kuchurgan, in Russian), in
Transnistria, in 1995.
Another source of problems is the fact that almost 90
of power and 100 percent of power transformers are
politically troubled Transnistria. In addition,
adversarial "government" has frequently disrupted the flow
fuels into Moldova from Russia and Ukraine.
Moldova has an electric power production capacity of
million kilowatts, and it produced 11.1 billion
electricity in 1993. By 1994 electricity production had
14 percent in comparison with 1993. Over the same period,
electric production decreased 22 percent.
Despite its lack of energy resources, the country
to export some of the electricity it generates to Romania
Bulgaria. However, these exports have been cut back (the
countries receive electricity only to the extent to which
supply fuel). Some electricity shortages have occurred in
Moldova, mostly in winter, and have been dealt with by
Much of the country's generating equipment (which is not
by Moldova) and approximately one-quarter of its
distribution lines are in need of repair.
In the early 1990s, energy shortages were prevalent,
energy availability was sporadic, leading to disruptions
economic activity; imports of coal, natural gas, diesel
gasoline declined by an estimated average of 40 percent
to 1992. In 1994 the picture was somewhat different.
imports were up 33.6 percent and coal imports increased
percent, while imports of diesel fuel, mazut, and natural
fell 25 percent, 51.5 percent, and 3.1 percent,
In 1994 Moldavia was dependent on Russia for 90 percent
the fuel needed for its electric-power generation plants:
oil (88,000 tons), gasoline (65,000 tons), fuel oil
tons), and natural gas (2.8 billion cubic meters). By
Moldova owed Russia US$232 million for fuel, with half of
amount owed by the "Dnestr Republic."
Moldova had started paying off this debt in goods,
agricultural products, but beginning in late 1994 the
paid these debts by giving Gazprom, the Russian
gas company, equity stakes in key Moldovan enterprises. In
January 1995, Moldova gave control of Moldovagas, the
gas company, to Gazprom.
Data as of June 1995