You are here -allRefer - Reference - Country Study & Country Guide - Mongolia >

allRefer Reference and Encyclopedia Resource

allRefer    
allRefer
   


-- Country Study & Guide --     

 

Mongolia

 
Country Guide
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Armenia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belize
Bhutan
Bolivia
Brazil
Bulgaria
Cambodia
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Caribbean Islands
Comoros
Cyprus
Czechoslovakia
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
Georgia
Germany
Germany (East)
Ghana
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Cote d'Ivoire
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Laos
Lebanon
Libya
Lithuania
Macau
Madagascar
Maldives
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Nepal
Nicaragua
Nigeria
North Korea
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Romania
Russia
Saudi Arabia
Seychelles
Singapore
Somalia
South Africa
South Korea
Soviet Union [USSR]
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Syria
Tajikistan
Thailand
Turkmenistan
Turkey
Uganda
United Arab Emirates
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela
Vietnam
Yugoslavia
Zaire

Appendix A. Tables

Table 1. Metric Conversion Coofficients and Factors

When you kowMultiply byTo find
Millimeters0.04inches
Centimeters0.39inches
Meters3.3feet
Kilometers0.62miles
Hectares2.47acres
Square kilometers0.39square miles
Cubic meters35.3cubic feet
Liters0.26gallons
Kilograms2.2pounds
Metric tons0.98long tons
1.1short tons
2,204pounds
Degrees Celsius (Centigrade)1.8 and add 32degrees Fahrenheit

Table 2. Population Statistics, Selected Years, 1918-89

YearEstimated PopulationCrude Birth RateCrude Death RateRate of Natural Increase
(per thousand)(per thousand)(per thousand)
1918647,000n.a.n.a.n.a.
1925651,700n.a.n.a.n.a.
1935738,200n.a.n.a.n.a.
1940738,60026.121.84.3
1945759,300n.a.n.a.n.a.
1956845,50032.314.218.1
1960936,90043.210.532.7
19651,076,00038.012.026.0
19701,230,50040.212.327.9
19751,424,40039.410.029.4
19791,595,00037.29.527.7
19801,639,70037.910.427.5
19851,890,50036.09.226.8
1989*2,125,00035.17.627.5

n.a.--not available.
*Projected.

Source: Based on information from Mongolia, Central Statistical Board, National Economy of the MPR for 65 Years, 1921- 1986, Ulaanbaatar, 1986, 79-80; United States, Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research, World Population Profile, 1987, Washington, 1987, 292; and K.C. Zachariah and My T. Vu, World Population Projections: 1978-88 Edition, Baltimore, 1988, 282.

Table 3. Ethnic Composition, 1979 Census

Ethnic GroupEstimated PopulationPercentage of Population
(in thousands)
Khalkha1,23677.5
Kazakh845.3
Dorbet452.8
Bayat311.9
Buryat291.8
Dariganga241.5
Dzakchin201.3
Urianhay191.2
Torgut90.6
Other885.5
TOTAL1,594100.0

Source: Based on information from Mongolia, Central Statistical Board, National Economy of the MPR in 1981, Ulaanbaatar, 1982, translated in JPRS-MON-86-001, January 27, 1986, 13.

Table 4. Urban-Rural Breakdown by Family Size, 1979 Census

(Numbers in thousands)
UrbanRuralTo tal
Family SizeNumberPercentageNumberPer centageNumberPercentage
1-324.617.039.823.964.420.7
3-442.229.346.728.088.928.6
5-636.725.434.420.771.122.8
7-824.817.225.215.150.016.1
9 and over16.111.120.512.336.611.8
TOTAL144.4100.0166.6100.0311.0100.0

Source: Based on information from Mongolia, Central Statistical Board, National Economy of the MPR in 1981, Ulaanbaatar, 1982, translated in JPRS-MON-86-001, January 27, 1986, 22.

Table 5. Females in the Work Force by Sector, 1979 Census

Female EmployeesFemales in Sector
Sectoras Percentageas Percentage of
of SectorEmployed Females
Material production Agriculture46.834.9
Communications46.90.9
Construction35.06.7
Industry45.914.5
Trade and procurement57.88.9
Transportation14.72.8
Total material production42.5169.02
Nonmaterial production
Education, art, and culture62.611.5
Finance, credit, and insurance59.30.6
Housing and domestic services54.93.1
Public health and social security78.89.4
Science and scientific service41.31.4
Total nonmaterial production54.6131.03
TOTAL45.61100.0

1Average.
2Figures do not add to total because of rounding.
3As published.

Source: Based on information from Mongolia, Central Statistical Board, National Economy of the MPR for 65 Years, 1921-1986, Ulaanbaatar, 1986, 144-47.

Table 6. Education Statistics, 1970, 1980, and 1985

197019801985
Schools
Institutions of higher learning578
Vocational secondary283740
Specialized secondary192528
Primary and junior secondary761885911
Total schools813954987
Students
Institutions of higher learning8,40023,20024,600
Vocational secondary10,60022,10027,700
Specialized secondary11,10018,70023,000
Primary and junior secondary245,900394,400435,900
Total students276,000458,400511,200

Source: Based on information from Mongolia, Central Statistical Board, National Economy of the MPR for 65 Years, 1921-1986, Ulaanbaatar, 1986, 361-64.

Table 7. Employment by Sector, Selected Years, 1960-85

(in percentages)
Sector196019701980198 5
Material production
Agriculture and forestry60.847.339.933.8
Construction6.95.86.06.1
Industry12.115.516.018.6
Trade, material, technical supplies, and procurement3.56.56.87.3
Transportation and communications3.75.47.17.8
Total material production*87.080.676.073.8
Nonmaterial production
Education, culture, and art3.77.89.610.3
Finance, credit, and insurance0.10.30.40.4
Housing and domestic services0.62.02.83.8
Public administration4.62.12.22.4
Public health and social security institutions2.85.26.36.4
Science and scientific services0.41.01.71.9
Total nonmaterial production*13.019.424.026.2
TOTAL 100.0100.0100.0100.0

*As published.

Source: Based on information from Mongolia, Central Statistical Board, National Economy of the MPR for 65 Years, 1921-1986, Ulaanbaatar, 1986, 134-37.

Table 8. Major Joint Ventures, 1987

Joint VenturePartnerSectorDate Comments
Erdenet Mining and Concentrating CombineSoviet UnionMining1973Exploitation of copper and moybdenum.
Monogolbank-do-Banking1924Turned over to Mongolian control in 1954 and renamed State Bank of the Mongolian People's Republic.
MongolbolgarmetallBulgariaMiningLate 1970s
MongolchekhoslovakmetallCzechoslovakia-do-1979Exploitation of fluorite and tin.
MongolneftSoviet UnionOil1949Turned over to Mongolian control in 1957.
Mongsovbuner-do-Wholesale trade1932Turned over to Mongolian control in 1934.
Mongolsovtsvetmet-do-Mining1970sExploitation of nonferrous metals.
Mongoltrans-do-Transportation1929Turned over to Mongolian control in 1936.
Sovmongmetall-do-Mining1949Turned over to Mongolian control in 1957.
Sovmongolpromstroy-do-ConstructionAfter World War II
Stormong-do-Foreign trade1927Turned over to Mongolian control at unknown date.
Ulaanbaatar Railroad-do-Transportation1949Established with 53 percent Soviet share; equal shares agreed upon in 1968.

Source: Based on information from Alan J.K. Sanders, Mongolia: Politics, Economics, and Society. Boulder, Colorado, 1987, 85- 87.

Table 9. Foreign Trade, 1970, 1980, and 1985

(in percentage)
197019801985
Exports
Raw materials and processed products (nonfoodstuffs)58.530.924.5
Raw materials (foodstuffs)19.513.46.2
Foodstuffs9.619.09.2
Industrial consumer goods5.99.616.8
Fuel, minerals, raw materials, and metals5.426.442.6
Chemicals, fertilizers, and rubber---------
Construction materials0.90.40.6
Machines and equipment0.20.30.1
Total exports100.0100.0100.0
Imports
Raw materials and processed products (nonfoodstuffs)2.02.42.8
Raw materials (foodstuffs)0.32.91.4
Foodstuffs12.78.46.2
Industrial consumer goods36.320.917.3
Fuel, minerals, raw materials, and metals12.824.128.7
Chemicals, fertilizers, and rubber5.16.36.0
Construction materials1.71.91.4
Machines and equipment25.933.136.2
Total imports*100.0*100.0100.0

--- means negligible.
*As published.

Source: Based on information from Mongolia, Central Statistical B oard, National Economy of the MPR for 65 Years, 1921-1986, Ulaanbaatar, 1986, 340-42.

Table 10. Principal Foreign Trade Commodities, 1986

CommodityUnitQuantity
Exports
Cementthousands of tons13
Grain-do-139
Meat and meat products-do-44
Wool-do-16
Large hidesthousands121
Small hides-do-1,256
Lumberthousands of cubic meters39
Sawn timber-do-121
Clothingmillions of rubles38
Imports
Cementthousands of tons49
Fertilizers-do-33
Fresh fruits-do-2,600
Gas, diesel, and paraffin-do-788
Lubricating oil-do-24
Paper-do-9
Refined sugar-do-42
Rolled iron and steel-do-74
Canned vegetablestons1,500
Insecticides-do-1,615
Cotton clothmillions of meters55
Silk and synthetic cloth-do-8
Woolen cloth-do-1
Busesunits319
Clocks and watches-do-120,000
Cranes-do-55
Diesel generators-do-7
Electric forklifts-do-17
Excavators-do-60
Machine tools-do-50
Motorcycles-do-7,107
Automobiles-do-551
Radio receivers-do-17,100
Refrigerators-do-12,600
Sewing machines-do-10,100
Television sets-do-11,000
Tractors-do-695
Transformers-do-186
Trucks-do-1,546
Washing machines-do-6,500
Leather footwearthousands of pairs 566

Source: Based on information from Europa Year Book, 1988, London, 1988, 1, 865.

Table 11. Hurals, 1924-86

HuralDate
First National Great HuralNovember 1924
Second National Great HuralNovember 1925
Third National Great HuralNovember 1926
Fourth National Great HuralOctober-November 1927
Fifth National Great HuralDecember 1928-January 1929
Sixth National Great HuralApril 1930
Seventh National Great HuralDecember 20-27, 1937
Eighth National Great HuralJune 20-July 9, 1940
Ninth National Great HuralFebruary 12-19, 1949
First People's Great HuralJuly 1951
Second People's Great HuralJune 1954
Third People's Great HuralJune 1957
Fourth People's Great HuralJuly 1960
Fifth People's Great HuralJune 1963
Sixth People's Great HuralJuly 1966
Seventh People's Great Hural June1969
Eighth People's Great HuralJuly 1973
Ninth People's Great HuralJune 1977
Tenth People's Great HuralJune-July 1981
Eleventh People's Great HuralJuly 1986

*Known as National Great Hural from 1924 to 1951; thereafter know n as People's Great Hural.

Table 12. Party Congresses, 1921-86

Party Congress*Date
First Party CongressMarch 1-3, l921
Second Party CongressJuly 18-August l8, 1923
Third Party CongressAugust 4-24, 1924
Fourth Party CongressSeptember 23-October 2, 1925
Fifth Party CongressSeptember 26-October 4, 1926
Sixth Party CongressSeptember 22-October 4, 1927
Seventh Party CongressOctober 23-December 10, 1928
Eighth Party CongressFebruary 21-April 3, 1930
Ninth Party CongressSeptember 28-October 5, 1934
Tenth Party CongressMarch 20-April 5, 1940
Eleventh Party CongressDecember 7-23, 1947
Twelfth Party CongressNovember 19-24, 1954
Thirteenth Party CongressMarch 17-22, 1958
Fourteenth Party CongressJuly 3-7, 1961
Fifteenth Party CongressJune 7-11, 1966
Sixteenth Party CongressJuly 1971
Seventeenth Party CongressJune 14-18, 1976
Eighteenth Party CongressMay 26-30, 1981
Nineteenth Party CongressMay 29-31, 1986

*Party known as Mongolian People's Party from 1921 to 1924; there after known as Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party.

Table 13. Major Equipment of Mongolian People's Army, 1988

DescriptionCountry of OriginEstimated Inventory
Armor
Main battle tanks (T-54, T-55, T-62)Soviet Union650
BRDM-2 reconnaissance vehicles-do-135
BMP-1 mechanized infantry combat vehicles-do-420
BTR-40, BTR-60, and BTR-152 armored personnel carriers-do-450
Artillery
D-30 122mm, M-46 130mm, and ML-20 152mm towed artillery-do- 650
ZPU-4 14.5mm, M-1939 37mm, and S-60 57mm air defense guns-do- 100
T-12 100mm antitank guns-do-n.a.
120mm and 160mm mortars-do-n.a.
BM-21 122mm, B-13 132mm, BM-16 132mm, BM-14 140mm, BM-16 140mm, and BM-17 140mm multiple rocket launchers-do-120+
Surface-to-air missiles
SA-7-do-300
Fighters
MiG-21 (Fishbed), including one MiG-21U trainer-do-30
Transports
An-2 (Colt)-do-20
An-24 (Coke)-do-19
An-26 (Curl)-do-1
An-32 (Cline)-do-1
Helicopters
Mi-4 (Hound)-do-10
Mi-8 (Hip)-do-n.a.

n.a.--not available.

Source: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1988- 1989, London, 1988, 171.

Mongolia - TABLE OF CONTENTS


Go Up - Top of Page

Make allRefer Reference your HomepageAdd allRefer Reference to your FavoritesGo to Top of PagePrint this PageSend this Page to a Friend


Information Courtesy: The Library of Congress - Country Studies


Content on this web site is provided for informational purposes only. We accept no responsibility for any loss, injury or inconvenience sustained by any person resulting from information published on this site. We encourage you to verify any critical information with the relevant authorities.

 

 

 
 


About Us | Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy | Links Directory
Link to allRefer | Add allRefer Search to your site

allRefer
All Rights reserved. Site best viewed in 800 x 600 resolution.