Other Countries and Areas
At the beginning of the 1990s, Portugal still retained
special interest in its former colony Brazil, although the
Portuguese continued to occasionally look down on
"people from the tropics," just as Brazilians had their
about the Portuguese. Relations between the two countries
shaped by Brazil's much greater size and more powerful
For this reason, Brazilian investment in Portugal in the
and 1980s was considerably greater than Portuguese
Brazil. Brazilian telenovelas (soap operas) also
Portuguese television, leading to additional resentments.
general, however, relations between the two countries were
although as of the beginning of the 1990s, any "special"
relationship was now largely historical, cultural, and
rather than a reflection of concrete interests.
Portugal also sought to maintain good relations with
African and Middle Eastern countries, in part because of
geography and in part because Portugal depended entirely
imported oil. Its "tilt" toward the Islamic countries
produced strains in United States-Portuguese relations,
particularly when the Middle East was in turmoil and the
States wished to use its bases in the Azores in pursuit of
own Middle Eastern policies.
East Timor, Portugal's former colony on the eastern
the island of Timor in Indonesia, remained a concern for
in the early 1990s. Portuguese settlers first came to the
in 1520, but it was not until the second half of the
century that Portugal had control of the territory. In
broke out between rival groups striving for independence
Portugal. Late in the year, Indonesian troops invaded to
fighting, and in 1976 East Timor was declared part of
As of the early 1990s, continuing resistance on the part
Timorese guerrillas against Indonesian rule had claimed
of as many as 100,000 people.
As of the early 1990s, the UN continued to regard
the administering authority in East Timor. Portuguese
for their part, believed that their country had a moral
obligation to remain involved in the affairs of its former
colony. Through a variety of diplomatic moves, Lisbon
to move the Indonesian government to arrange a settlement
could bring peace and even independence to East Timor.
refused to loosen its hold on the territory because it
such an action might embolden other areas restive under
control, such as West Irian, to seek independence.
* * *
During the Salazar era, the authoritarian nature of the
regime made it difficult to carry out serious, scholarly
research; in the immediate aftermath of the Revolution of
some of the research was partisan and ideological. More
a wealth of scholarship has begun to emerge.
The Salazar era is covered in António de Figueiredo's
Portugal: Fifty Years of Dictatorship; Hugh Kay's
Salazar and Modern Portugal; and Howard J. Wiarda's
Corporatism and Development. Richard Alan Hodgson
Robinson's Contemporary Portugal and Tom
Portugal: A Twentieth Century Interpretation are
thoughtful and analytical introductions to Portuguese
Especially valuable are the edited volume by Lawrence S.
and Harry M. Makler, Contemporary Portugal, and
Graham and Douglas L. Wheeler, In Search of Modern
Portugal, incorporating papers from the meetings of
Conference Group on Modern Portugal.
The revolutionary period of the mid-1970s is covered
Kenneth Maxwell's articles in Foreign Affairs and
New York Review of Books, and in Douglas Porch's
Portuguese Armed Forces and the Revolution. A more
specialized account is Nancy Bermeo's The Revolution
Albert P. Blaustein and Gisbert H. Flanz's
the Countries of the World provides a text and
the constitutional changes of the post-Salazar period.
treatments of political events and of the main forces
are in Thomas C. Bruneau's Politics and Nationhood,
Bruneau and Alex Macleod's Politics in Contemporary
Portugal, Walter C. Opello's Portugal's Political
Development, and Portugal in the 1980s, edited
Kenneth Maxwell. A skeptical view of Portuguese
provided in Howard J. Wiarda's The Transition to
Spain and Portugal; a more hopeful perspective by the
author is Politics in Iberia. (For further
Data as of January 1993