Formal Name: Republic of Turkmenistan.
Short Form: Turkmenistan.
Term for Citizens: Turkmenistani(s).
Date of Independence: October 27, 1991.
Size: Approximately 488,100 square kilometers.
Topography: Center of country dominated by Turan
Depres-sion and Garagum Desert, flatlands of which occupy nearly
80 percent of country's area; Kopetdag Range along southwestern
border reaches 2,912 meters; Balkan Mountains in far west and
Kugitang Range in far east only other appreciable elevations.
Climate: Subtropical, desert, and severely continental,
with little rainfall; winters mild and dry, most precipitation
falling between January and May. Heaviest precipitation in Kopetdag
Data as of March 1996