Size: About 1,221,900 square kilometers;
easternmost African landmass known as Horn of Africa.
NOTE--The Country Profile contains updated
Topography: Massive highland complex of
dissected plateaus divided by Great Rift Valley running
generally southwest to northeast and surrounded by lowlands,
steppes, or semidesert; northeastern coastline of about 960
kilometers along the Red Sea. Great terrain diversity
determines wide variations in climate, soils, natural
vegetation, and settlement patterns.
Climate: Elevation and geographic location
climatic zones: cool zone above 2,400 meters where
temperatures range from near freezing to 16° C; temperate
zone at elevations of 1,500 to 2,400 meters with
temperatures from 16° C to 30° C; and hot zone below
meters with both tropical and arid conditions and daytime
temperatures ranging from 27° C to 50° C. Normal
from mid-June to mid-September (longer in the southern
highlands) preceded by intermittent showers from February or
March; remainder of year generally dry.
Data as of 1991