The Duvaliers suppressed labor unions. A number of
organized unions and federations emerged after the fall of
JeanClaude , but labor generally lacked institutional
, ch. 3). Unions exercised little clout in industry.
importance as pressure groups, however, grew during the
post-Duvalier period. Professional and trade associations
an active political role in the fall of Jean-Claude
during the period that followed. The most active
represented teachers, students, agronomists, physicians,
journalists, lawyers, and engineers. The Association of
Industries of Haiti (Association des Industries d'Haïti),
representing businesspeople involved in the assembly
exercised a great deal of influence over government
policy. The two Port-au-Prince chambers of commerce--the
of Commerce and Industry of Haiti (Chambre de Commerce et
l'Industrie d'Haïti) and the Haitian-American Chamber of
and Industry (Chambre de Commerce et del'Industrie
HaïtianoAméricaine --Hamcham)--were less active after 1986 than
been under Jean-Claude Duvalier. The Association of Coffee
Exporters (Association des Exportateurs de Café--Asdec)
exerted influence in politics and the economy.
Approximately ten human rights organizations functioned
Haiti in 1989. Although most formed after the fall of
Duvalier, one had been in existence since the late 1970s.
these organizations maintained their headquarters in
Port-au-Prnce. A number of them had links to Haitians who
abroad or who had been exiled during the Duvalier era.
individuals working in human rights harbored broader
ambitions, and they sought to influence presidential
Data as of December 1989