One of the most notable features of Indonesia's health
system, in comparison with other Southeast Asian nations,
low level of government support (see
table 13, Appendix).
modern health care system continued the Dutch colonial
low investment in health care. The Dutch did relatively
the field of public health prior to 1910, with the
giving smallpox vaccinations. In the 1930s, however, the
devoted increased attention to health education and
prevention, particularly in rural areas. An elaborate
infrastructure had developed by 1939, including a
sophisticated model program in Purwokerto in Jawa Tengah
But this public health system collapsed after the Japanese
in 1942. During World War II, mortality rose dramatically
general health situation of the country deteriorated.
In the postwar period, a network of maternal and child
centers was established, but resources were extremely
one physician for every 100,000 people. The first dramatic
improvements resulted from the establishment of the
community health centers. Although there was considerable
resistance by the general population toward using these
at first, by the 1980 census, 40 percent of people
illness in the prior week had sought treatment at one of
community health centers.
Unfortunately, direct central government spending on
(apart from intergovernmental transfers) fell by 45
percent in real
terms between FY 1982 and FY 1987 because of the declining
from the oil industry. The Outer Islands continued to
severe shortage of physicians and hospitals, but this
partially offset by a higher percentage of community
centers, staffed by health care workers.
Data as of November 1992