Government and Politics
Government: Constitution of 1993 prescribes
three branches; executive strongest and reinforced with special
powers assumed by President Askar Akayev, early 1990s. In election
held December 1995, Akayev reelected by 71.6 percent of vote.
Council of Ministers, nominally administering executive branch,
subservient to president. Bicameral parliament of 105 (upper house
35, convened full-time; lower house 70 members, convening twice
yearly) established 1994 at Akayev's request, elected to five-year
terms; parliament has opposed Akayev on some issues. Judges appointed
by president with parliamentary approval. Some local governments
with strong power bases.
Politics: Numerous groups appeared early 1990s
but no organized party system; government has denied registration
to some parties; some neocommunist parties active.
Foreign Relations: Post-Soviet attempts at relations
with wide variety of Western and Asian countries, based on neutrality,
using Akayev's personal diplomacy. Careful cultivation of powerful
neighbors Russia, Kazakstan, and Uzbekistan; border tensions with
Tajikistan. Fast increasing Chinese economic role watched carefully
by government; Western sources of aid endangered by antidemocratic
International Agreements and Memberships: Member
of United Nations (UN), Organization for Security and Coopera-tion
in Europe (OSCE), Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), Islamic
Bank, Asian Development Bank, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO) Partnership for Peace, World Bank, International Monetary
Fund (IMF), Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
Data as of March 1996