You are here -allRefer - Reference - Country Study & Country Guide - Lithuania >

allRefer Reference and Encyclopedia Resource

allRefer    
allRefer
   


-- Country Study & Guide --     

 

Lithuania

 
Country Guide
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Armenia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belize
Bhutan
Bolivia
Brazil
Bulgaria
Cambodia
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Caribbean Islands
Comoros
Cyprus
Czechoslovakia
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
Georgia
Germany
Germany (East)
Ghana
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Cote d'Ivoire
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Laos
Lebanon
Libya
Lithuania
Macau
Madagascar
Maldives
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Nepal
Nicaragua
Nigeria
North Korea
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Romania
Russia
Saudi Arabia
Seychelles
Singapore
Somalia
South Africa
South Korea
Soviet Union [USSR]
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Syria
Tajikistan
Thailand
Turkmenistan
Turkey
Uganda
United Arab Emirates
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela
Vietnam
Yugoslavia
Zaire

Appendix
Table 1. Metric Conversion Coefficients and Factors

When you know Multiply by To find
     
Millimeters 0.04 inches
Centimeters 0.39 inches
Meters 3.3 feet
Kilometers 0.62 miles
Hectares 2.47 acres
Square kilometers 0.39 square miles
Cubic meters 35.3 cubic feet
Liters 0.26 gallons
Kilograms 2.2 pounds
Metric tons 0.98 long tons
1.1 short tons
2,204.0 pounds
Degrees Celsius (Centigrade) 1.8 and add 32 degrees Fahrenheit

Table 2. Estonia: Total Population and Population by Nationality, Selected Years, 1922-89 (in percentages)

Nationality 1922 1934 1959 1970 1979 1989
             
Estonian 87.7 88.2 74.6 68.2 64.7 61.5
Russian 8.2 8.2 20.1 24.7 27.9 30.3
German 1.7 1.5 0.1 0.6 0.3 0.2
Swedish 0.7 0.7 -- -- -- --
Finnish -- -- 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.1
Ukrainian -- -- 1.3 2.1 2.5 3.1
Belorussian -- -- 0.9 1.4 1.6 1.7
Jewish 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3
Other 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.8
TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Total population 1,107,059 1,126,413 1,196,791 1,356,000 1,464,476 1,565,662

Source: Based on information from Toivo V. Raun, Estonia and the Estonians, Stanford, California, 1991, 130; and Marje Jõeste, Ülo Kaevats, and Harry Õiglane, eds., Eesti A & Ö, Tallinn, 1993, 96.

Table 3. Estonia: Population of Largest Cities and Percentage Share of Estonians, 1934 and 1989

  1934 1989
City Population Percentage of Estonians Population Percentage of Estonians
         
Tallinn 137,792 85.6 478,974 47.4
Tartu 58,876 87.6 113,420 72.3
Narva 23,512 64.8 81,221 4.0
Pärnu 20,334 90.7 52,389 72.4
Viljandi 11,788 93.3 23,080 87.1
Valga 10,842 82.3 17,722 52.9
Rakvere 10,027 90.9 19,822 75.2
Võru 5,332 91.1 17,496 85.2
Haapsalu 4,649 88.3 14,617 66.4
Kuressaare 4,478 88.0 16,166 92.8
Tapa 3,751 93.7 10,439 37.0
Paide 3,285 93.5 10,849 86.7
Paldiski 851 94.0 7,690 2.4
Kohtla-Järve -- --2 77,316 20.8

Source: Based on information from Kulno Kala, "Eesti rahvuslikust koosseeisust pärast Teist Maailmasõda," Akadeemia [Tartu], 4, No. 3, 1992, 534.

Table 4. Estonia: Net In-Migration, 1956-90

Period Net In-Migration
   
1956-60 30,502
1961-65 40,435
1966-70 42,493
1971-75 31,760
1976-80 28,398
1981-85 28,136
1986-90 7,510

Source: Based on information from Estonia, Eesti Vabariigi Riiklik Statistikaamet, Statistika Aastaraamat, 1991, Tallinn, 1991, 26.

Table 5. Estonia: Natural Population Growth by Nationality, 1982-92

Year Estonians Other Nationalities Total Percentage Share of Estonians
         
1982 638 4,608 5,246 12.4
1983 727 5,246 5,973 12.2
1984 157 5,004 5,161 3.0
1985 -152 4,439 4,287 -3.0
1986 1,171 4,949 6,120 19.1
1987 1,654 5,153 6,807 24.3
1988 1,949 4,579 6,528 29.9
1989 2,578 3,201 5,779 44.6
1990 1,079 1,718 2,797 38.6
1991 -355 -30 -385 -92.2
1992 -783 -1,333 -2,116 -37.0

Source: Based on information from Estonia, Eesti Vabariigi Riiklik Statistikaamet, Statistika Aastaraamat, 1991, Tallinn, 1991, 39.

Table 6. Estonia: Gross Domestic Product, 1989-93 (at constant prices and in percentage of real growth)

  1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
           
Value 8,681 7,977 7,099 5,445 5,320
Percentage of real growth 3.3 -8.1 -11.9 -23.3 -2.3

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Report: Baltic Republics: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania [London], No. 1, 1994, 4.

Table 7. Estonia: Employment Distribution by Sector, 1990

Sector Employees Percentage
     
Administration 17.1 2.1
Agriculture 94.5 11.9
Banking and insurance 4.0 0.5
Construction 78.8 9.9
Data services 3.4 0.4
Education and culture 79.8 10.0
Forestry 6.9 0.1
Health and sports 49.0 6.2
Housing and services 35.4 4.5
Industry 259.2 32.6
Science, research, and development 18.0 2.3
Trade and catering 69.5 8.7
Transportation and communications 68.3 8.6
Other 11.6 1.5
TOTAL 795.5 100.0

Source: Based on information from World Bank, Estonia: The Transition to a Market Economy, Washington, 1993, 265-66.

Table 8. Estonia: Major Trading Partners, 1992 and 1993 (in percentages)

Country Exports Imports
  1992 1993 1992 1993
         
Finland 21.1 20.7 22.6 27.9
Russia 20.8 22.6 28.4 17.2
Latvia 10.6 8.6 1.7 2.3
Sweden 7.7 9.5 5.9 8.9
Ukraine 6.9 3.6 3.2 n.a.
Netherlands 5.0 4.1 1.8 3.6
Germany 3.9 8.0 8.3 10.7
Denmark 2.4 2.4 1.7 2.6
United States 1.9 1.9 2.4 2.7
Lithuania 1.5 3.7 3.6 3.3
Japan n.a. n.a. 2.7 4.2
Other 18.2 14.9 17.7 16.6

Source: Based on information from Estonia, Estonian State Statistics Board, 1993 Statistical Yearbook, Tallinn, 1993, as reported by Baltic News Service, March 27, 1993; and Saulius Girnius, "The Economies of the Baltic States in 1993," RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 3, No. 20, May 20, 1994, 8-9.

Table 9. Estonia: Foreign Trade by Commodity Share, 1992

Commodity Share Percentage
Exports  
Textiles and textile goods 14.0
Metals and metal products 11.3
Animals and animal products 11.2
Mineral products 10.9
Timber and timber products 7.9
Imports  
Mineral products 27.2
Machinery and equipment 18.3
Textiles and textile goods 15.2
Automobiles and other vehicles 12.7

Source: Based on information from Estonia, Estonian State Statistics Board, 1993 Statistical Yearbook, Tallinn, 1993, as reported by Baltic News Service, March 27, 1993.

Table 10. Estonia: Foreign Investment Capital in Estonia by Country of Origin, April 1993

Country Total Investment Percentage
     
Sweden 835.4 37.7
Finland 663.7 30.0
Commonwealth of Independent States 235.7 10.6
United States 99.2 4.5
Netherlands 76.5 3.5
Yugoslavia 60.1 2.7
Germany 51.8 2.3
Other 191.0 8.6
TOTAL 2,213.4 100.0

Source: Based on information from R. Ehrlich and L. Luup, eds., Invest in the Future: The Future Is Estonia, Tallinn, 1993, 36.

Table 11. Estonia: Foreign Loans and Credits to Estonia, 1992 (in thousands of United States dollars)

Source Amount Designated Use
     
European Union 45,000 Balance of payments support
Neste (Finland) 20,600 Purchase of fuel
Japan 20,000 Purchase of specific goods
Sweden 10,500 Balance of payments support
United States 10,000 Purchase of grain (export credit)
Finland Export Fund 8,500 Export credit
Switzerland 4,200 Balance of payments support
Norway 3,150 -do-
Finland 2,100 -do-
Austria 1,300 -do-
Statoil (Sweden) 750 Purchase of fuel
Iceland 25 EBRD membership

Source: Based on information from Estonia, Ministry of Finance, as reported by Baltic News Service, November 24, 1993.

Table 12. Estonia: Structure of Industrial Production, 1990 and 1992 (in percentages)

Sector 1990 1992
     
Light industry 26.3 17.9
Food processing 24.5 30.4
Metals and machinery 17.0 8.5
Forestry, timber, pulp, and paper 9.2 9.0
Chemicals 7.7 9.1
Energy 7.1 14.0
Other 8.2 11.2
TOTAL 100.0 100.0

Source: Based on information from World Bank, Estonia: The Transition to a Market Economy, Washington, 1993, 314; and R. Ehrlich and L. Luup, eds., Invest in the Future: The Future Is Estonia, Tallinn, 1993, 18.

Table 13. Estonia: Livestock Products, 1990 and 1992

Product 1990 1992
     
Eggs (millions) 547.1 456.0
Meat (thousands of tons slaughter weight)    
Beef 79.9 58.7
Lamb 3.0 2.2
Pork 114.5 60.2
Poultry 21.6 10.2
Other 0.3 0.3
Total meat 219.3 131.6
Milk (thousands of tons) 1,208.0 919.3
Wool (tons) 205.0 311.0

Source: Based on information from Estonia, Estonian State Statistics Board, 1993 Statistical Yearbook, Tallinn, 1993, 163-64.

Table 14. Estonia: Field Crop Production, 1990 and 1992

Crop Area Sown Total Production Average Yield
  1990 1992 1990 1992 1990 1992
             
Cereals and legumes            
Winter crops            
Rye 65.9 59.2 177.9 153.4 27.0 25.9
Wheat 21.2 26.8 53.0 64.8 25.0 24.2
Total winter crops 87.1 86.0 230.9 218.2 26.5 25.4
Summer crops            
Barley 263.7 268.2 599.9 300.8 22.7 11.2
Legumes 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.4 13.7 9.2
Mixed grains 8.0 10.5 20.7 10.8 25.9 10.3
Oats 33.4 41.7 93.4 43.7 28.0 10.5
Wheat 4.8 16.7 12.4 24.6 25.8 14.7
Total summer crops 310.0 337.5 726.6 380.3 23.4 11.3
Total cereals and legumes 397.1 423.5 957.5 598.5 24.1 14.1
Flax 2.0 0.9 0.4 0.2 2.0 2.0
Fodder roots 11.1 11.8 534.8 176.8 482.0 150.0
Potatoes 45.5 46.3 618.1 669.1 136.0 145.0
Vegetables 5.2 5.1 86.0 63.0 166.0 124.0

Source: Based on information from Estonia, Estonian State Statistics Board, 1993 Statistical Yearbook, Tallinn, 1993, 159-61.

Table 15. Latvia: Population by Ethnic Origin, Selected Years, 1935-89 (in thousands)

  1935 1959 1970 1979 1989
Ethnic Origin Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage
                     
Latvian 1,467.0 77.0 1,297.9 62.0 1,341.8 56.8 1,344.1 54.0 1,387.8 52.0
Russian 168.3 8.8 556.4 26.6 704.6 29.8 821.5 32.8 905.5 34.0
Jewish 93.4 4.9 36.6 1.7 36.7 1.6 28.3 1.1 22.9 0.9
German 62.1 3.3 1.6 0.1 5.4 0.2 3.3 0.1 3.8 0.1
Polish 48.6 2.6 59.8 2.9 63.0 2.7 62.7 2.5 60.4 2.3
Belorussian 26.8 1.4 61.6 2.9 94.7 4.0 111.5 4.5 119.7 4.5
Lithuanian 22.8 1.2 32.4 1.5 40.6 1.7 37.8 1.5 34.6 1.3
Estonian 6.9 0.4 4.6 0.2 4.3 0.2 3.7 0.1 3.3 0.1
Gypsy 3.8 0.2 4.3 0.2 5.4 0.2 6.1 0.2 7.0 0.3
Ukrainian 1.8 -- 29.4 1.4 53.5 2.3 66.7 2.7 92.1 3.4
Tatar -- 0.0 1.8 0.1 2.7 0.1 3.8 0.2 4.8 0.2
TOTAL 1,901.5 100.0 2,086.4 100.0 2,352.7 100.0 2,489.5 100.0 2,641.9 100.0

Source: Based on information from Latvia, Valsts Statistikas Komiteja, Latvija Sodien, Riga, 1990, 13; Cina [Riga], June 23, 1971; and Latvia, 1989. Gada Vissavienibas Tautas Skaitisanas Rezultati Latvijas PSR, Riga, 1990, 10.

Table 16. Latvia: Ethnic Composition of Largest Cities and Riga City Districts under Latvia's Jurisdiction, 1989 Census (in percentages)

City or Riga City Section Latvian Russian Belorussian Ukrainian Polish Lithuanian Other
               
Cities              
Jelgava 49.7 34.7 6.0 3.9 1.7 1.2 2.8
Jurmala 44.2 42.1 4.9 3.4 1.5 0.9 3.0
Ventspils 43.0 39.4 5.8 6.4 1.0 0.7 3.7
Liepaja 38.8 43.1 4.9 7.5 1.1 2.3 2.3
Rezekne 37.3 55.0 2.0 1.6 2.7 0.2 1.2
Riga 36.5 47.3 4.8 4.8 1.8 0.8 4.0
Riga city districts              
Kirova 47.8 38.7 2.6 2.9 1.7 0.6 5.7
Lenina 42.4 42.4 4.4 4.8 1.7 0.9 3.4
Proletariesu 39.9 44.6 4.2 4.5 1.7 0.7 4.4
Maskavas 33.4 50.0 5.0 4.4 2.1 0.9 4.2
Oktobra 32.0 49.1 6.4 6.4 1.8 0.7 3.6
Leningradas 31.9 51.6 5.2 5.3 1.7 0.7 3.6

Source: Based on information from Latvia, Valsts Statistikas Komiteja, Latvijas Skaitlos, 1989 (Latvia in Figures, 1989), Riga, 1990; and Latvia, 1989. Gada Vissavienibas Tautas Skaitisanas Rezultati Latvijas PSR, Riga, 1990, 46.

Table 17. Latvia: Population Distribution by Ethnic Origin and Age-Group, 1989 Census

Age-Group Latvian Russian Belorussian Ukrainian Polish Lithuanian Jewish Other Total
                   
0-4 114,179 75,050 5,064 5,527 2,294 1,412 933 3,210 207,669
5-9 100,920 71,078 4,885 4,617 2,223 1,237 972 2,541 188,473
10-14 94,778 64,026 4,661 4,702 2,279 1,390 951 2,156 174,943
15-19 99,387 62,415 6,525 6,078 3,133 2,182 896 3,725 184,341
20-24 91,970 62,260 9,193 9,176 3,611 2,426 824 4,777 184,237
25-29 98,821 74,474 11,846 10,210 4,466 2,857 1,181 5,089 208,944
30-34 89,396 76,755 11,526 9,753 4,095 2,657 1,564 4,522 200,268
35-39 78,871 73,195 10,427 8,683 4,382 2,491 1,717 3,713 183,479
40-44 76,125 55,149 7,879 6,359 4,663 2,417 1,948 2,442 156,982
45-49 100,994 49,677 9,633 6,203 5,092 3,110 1,187 2,431 178,327
50-54 89,899 55,652 10,171 6,183 4,553 2,948 1,727 2,326 173,459
55-59 88,081 50,207 8,899 3,859 4,623 2,658 1,608 1,838 161,773
60-64 76,548 51,311 7,007 4,236 3,708 2,103 2,063 1,696 148,672
65-69 54,521 33,750 4,131 3,086 2,892 1,492 1,889 1,185 102,946
70 and over 133,034 50,465 7,753 4,055 8,374 3,249 3,437 1,972 212,339
Average age 35 32 37 33 42 39 44 32 n.a.

Source: Based on information from unpublished 1989 Latvian census printouts. The totals by age category differ slightly from the final figures published in Latvia, 1989. Gada Vissavienibas Tautas Skaitisanas Rezultati Latvijas PSR, Riga, 1990, 10. Thus, one has to assume the printout reflects preliminary data. The figures for the total population differ by only 31.

Table 18. Latvia: Births, Deaths, and Natural Increase by Ethnic Origin, Selected Years, 1980-91

Year Latvian Russian Belorussian Ukrainian Polish Lithuanian Jewish Other Total
                   
1980                  
Births 17,918 11,839 2,225 1,197 850 662 213 630 35,534
Deaths 20,107 7,978 1,202 472 1,046 515 453 327 32,100
Natural increase -2,189 3,861 1,023 725 -196 147 -240 303 3,434
1985                  
Births 20,354 12,840 2,367 1,580 972 677 206 755 39,751
Deaths 20,537 9,023 1,451 618 1,057 569 461 450 34,166
Natural increase -183 3,817 916 962 -85 108 -255 305 5,585
1986                  
Births 21,613 13,317 2,419 1,799 990 748 222 852 41,960
Deaths 18,682 8,340 1,331 642 1,002 559 422 350 31,328
Natural increase 2,931 4,977 1,088 1,157 -12 189 -200 502 10,632
1987                  
Births 21,617 13,396 2,471 1,808 1,002 745 189 907 42,135
Deaths 19,448 8,397 1,313 651 988 530 454 369 32,150
Natural increase 2,169 4,999 1,158 1,157 14 215 -265 538 9,985
1988                  
Births 21,354 13,012 2,410 1,825 911 643 187 933 41,275
Deaths 18,962 9,018 1,412 683 1,042 544 385 375 32,421
Natural increase 2,392 3,994 998 1,142 -131 99 -198 558 8,854
                   
                   
                   
1989                  
Births 20,964 11,698 2,037 1,679 907 635 132 870 38,922
Deaths 18,784 9,239 1,425 760 1,008 554 454 360 32,584
Natural increase 2,180 2,459 612 919 -101 81 -322 510 6,338
1990                  
Births 21,438 10,910 1,840 1,443 827 601 108 751 37,918
Deaths 19,892 10,033 1,564 756 1,111 587 440 429 34,812
Natural increase 1,546 877 276 687 -284 14 -332 322 3,106
1991                  
Births 20,107 9,716 1,537 1,254 736 583 73 627 34,633
Deaths 19,797 10,261 1,583 762 971 567 404 404 34,749
Natural increase 310 -545 -46 492 -235 16 -331 223 -116

Source: Based on information from Latvia, Statistikas Komiteja and Latvijas Zinatnu Akademijas Filozofijas un Sociologijas Instituts, Etnosituacija Latvija, Riga, 1992, 8.

Table 19. Latvia: Transborder Migration, 1961-89 (in thousands)

  Came to Latvia Left Latvia Net Migration
Period Total Average per Year Total Average per Year Total Average per Year
             
1961-65 238.1 47.6 159.1 31.8 79.0 15.8
1966-70 233.2 46.6 166.4 33.3 66.8 13.4
1971-75 292.3 58.5 232.0 46.4 60.3 12.1
1976-80 245.8 49.2 203.9 40.8 41.9 8.4
1981-85 255.6 51.1 213.5 42.7 42.1 8.4
1986-89 201.7 50.4 160.8 40.2 40.9 10.2
1986 54.5 n.a. 43.3 n.a. 11.2 n.a.
1987 56.9 n.a. 40.7 n.a. 16.2 n.a.
1988 52.3 n.a. 41.1 n.a. 11.2 n.a.
1989 38.0 n.a. 35.7 n.a. 2.3 n.a.
1961-89 1,668.4   1,296.5   371.9  

Source: Based on information from Latvia, Valsts Statistikas Komiteja, Latvija Skaitlos, 1989 (Latvia in Figures, 1989), Riga, 1990, 35; and Latvia, Valsts Statistikas Komiteja, Latvijas PSR Tautas Saimnieciba 1970, Riga, 1971, 17-18.

Table 20. Latvia: Ethnic Minorities by Place of Birth, 1989 (in percentages)

Ethnic Minority Latvia Russia Belorussia Ukraine Lithuania
           
Polish 65.8 3.1 22.3 -- --
Jewish 53.3 12.3 9.9 19.7 --
Russian 54.8 36.2 2.2 2.4 --
Lithuanian 36.3 2.2 0.6 -- 60.0
Belorussian 31.3 3.6 62.2 1.1 --
Ukrainian 19.4 8.5 1.6 65.7 --

Source: Based on information from Latvia, Valsts Statistikas Komiteja, Riga, May 24, 1991, unpublished document.

Table 21. Latvia: Religious Baptisms, Weddings, and Funerals by Religious Denomination, 1991

  Baptisms Weddings Funerals
Religious Denomination Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage
             
Evangelical Lutheran 10,666 35.1 1,549 32.3 1,439 15.2
Roman Catholic 10,661 35.0 2,651 55.3 4,995 52.8
Orthodox 6,315 20.8 468 9.8 1,937 20.5
Old Believer 1,273 4.2 33 0.7 730 7.7
Pentecostal 662 2.2 37 0.8 25 0.3
Baptist 462 1.5 20 0.4 130 1.4
Seventh-Day Adventist 388 1.3 5 0.1 69 0.7
Jewish n.a. n.a 35 0.7 137 1.4
TOTAL 30,427 100.0 4,798 100.0 9,462 100.0

Source: Based on information from Kristus Dzive [Riga], No. 5, 1992, 37.

Table 22. Latvia: Knowledge of Latvian Language among Persons of Russian Ethnic Origin by Age-Group, 1979 Census

Age-Group Total in Age-Group Latvian as First Language Latvian as Second Language Percentage Latvian Speakers
         
0-6 89,347 668 1,702 2.7
7-10 46,562 455 4,008 9.6
11-15 54,650 471 9,614 18.5
16-19 55,842 402 11,167 20.7
20-24 76,650 575 16,423 22.3
25-29 75,777 859 18,787 25.9
30-34 58,527 732 16,973 30.3
35-39 53,058 830 13,905 27.8
40-44 60,789 722 14,458 25.0
45-49 55,547 584 11,930 22.5
50-54 58,446 482 12,449 22.1
55-59 41,475 384 8,931 22.5
60-64 29,289 239 5,828 20.7
65-69 26,266 284 5,049 20.3
70 and over 39,128 300 5,504 14.8
Not known 111 2 15 n.a.
TOTAL 821,464 7,989 156,743 20.1

Source: Based on information from ethnic Latvian data in Latvia, Itogi vsesoyuznoy perepisi naseleniya 1979 goda po Latviyskoy SSR, Riga, 1982, 90. Ethnic Russian data presented by Peteris Zvidrins at Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies Conference in Seattle, June 1990.

Table 23. Latvia: Knowledge of Russian Language among Persons of Latvian Ethnic Origin by Age-Group, 1979 Census

Age-Group Total in Age-Group Russian as First Language Russian as Second Language Percentage Russian Speakers
         
0-6 130,922 4,490 6,483 8.4
7-10 77,718 2,764 19,266 28.3
11-15 92,894 3,331 51,425 58.9
16-19 79,086 2,795 63,611 84.0
20-24 88,444 2,534 76,347 89.2
25-29 78,861 1,807 67,775 88.2
30-34 77,813 1,494 65,585 86.2
35-39 104,644 1,717 86,653 84.4
40-44 95,523 1,803 75,434 80.9
45-49 95,441 1,429 68,725 73.5
50-54 85,326 1,385 53,385 64.2
55-59 64,448 957 34,012 54.3
60 and over 272,773 2,414 114,830 43.0
Not known 212 2 76 n.a.
TOTAL 1,344,105 28,922 783,607 60.5

Source: Based on information from ethnic Latvian data in Latvia, Itogi vsesoyuznoy perepisi naseleniya 1979 goda po Latviyskoy SSR, Riga, 1982, 90. Ethnic Russian data presented by Peteris Zvidrins at Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies Conference in Seattle, June 1990.

Table 24. Latvia: Distribution of Labor Force by Sector, 1990 (in percentages)

Sector Labor Force
   
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 15.5
Industry 30.3
Transportation and communications 7.3
Construction 10.3
Trade 9.1
Credit and insurance 0.5
Service and other branches 27.0
TOTAL 100.0

Source: Based on information from United States, National Technical Information Service, Latvia: An Economic Profile, Washington, August 1992, 5.

Table 25. Latvia: Agricultural Production on Private Farms, Selected Years, 1989-93

Product 1989 1991 1992 1993
         
Cattle 15.1 62.5 141.2 144.5
Pigs1 7.0 43.0 85.4 97.4
Sheep1 6.4 27.6 52.9 41.3
Cereals and pulses 10.8 89.7 206.3 432.7
Potatoes2 14.4 77.8 232.3 361.7
Milk 9.5 73.5 177.9 282.2
Meat3 2.2 14.1 23.5 45.1

Source: Based on information from International Monetary Fund, Economic Review: Latvia, Washington, 1994, 73.

Table 26. Latvia: Growth of Private Farms, Selected Years, 1989-93

  1989 1991 1992 1993
         
Number of private farms 3,931 17,538 52,279 57,510
Total area 65.6 186.2 872.9 1,108.4
Total sown area1 12.8 89.3 303.2 414.8

Source: Based on information from International Monetary Fund, Economic Review: Latvia, Washington, 1994, 73.

Table 27. Lithuania: Production of Selected Industrial Products, 1989

Product Quantity
   
Energy  
Electric power (billions of kilowatt-hours) 29
Chemicals  
Mineral fertilizers (thousands of tons) 632
Sulfuric acid (thousands of tons) 512
Linoleum (thousands of square meters) 1,624
Machine building, metals, and electronics (thousands)  
Electric motors 7,659
Metal-cutting lathes 13
Electric meters 3,612
Television sets 615
Tape recorders 186
Refrigerators 350
Bicycles 423
Construction materials  
Bricks (millions) 1,121
Window glass (thousands of square meters) 4,172
Food processing  
Meat (industrial production) (thousands of tons) 447
Butter (thousands of tons) 78
Cheese (thousands of tons) 27
Confectionery goods (thousands of tons) 91
Fish and marine products (tons) 41
Textiles and soft goods  
Textiles (millions of square meters) 218
Shoes (millions of pairs) 12
Knitwear (millions of units) 18

Source: Based on information from The Baltic States: A Reference Book, Tallinn, 1991.

Table 28. Lithuania: Foreign Trade by Country, January-June 1994 (in percentages)

Country Exports Imports
     
Russia 30 41
Germany 10 14
Belarus 7 3
Ukraine 7 6
Latvia 7 2
Poland 4 4

Source: Based on information from Lithuania, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Department of Economic Relations, 1995.

Table 29. Lithuania: Exports by Selected Product and by Major Trading Partner, 1992 and 1993 (in thousands of United States dollars)

  Germany France1 Italy1 Total
Product 1992 1993 1992 1993 1992 1993 1992
               
Food 11,764 26,930 648 1,478 1,733 1,169 164,025
Chemicals 16,418 22,002 7,335 12,836 301 640 74,711
Machinery 1,615 11,440 356 278 909 511 197,006
Clothing 8,804 35,528 1,243 4,350 133 214 55,804
Petroleum and petroleum products 13,088 3,091 7,489 29,507 0 9 25,213
Other 157,902 94,267 10,975 17,520 11,267 21,897 288,255
TOTAL 209,591 193,258 28,046 65,969 14,343 24,440 805,014

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Report: Baltic Republics: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania [London], No. 1, 1995, 47.

Table 30. Lithuania: Imports by Selected Product and by Major Trading Partner, 1992 and 1993 (in thousands of United States dollars)

  Germany United States1 France1 Total
Product 1992 1993 1992 1993 1992 1993 1992
               
Food 63,111 44,069 25,089 17,818 18,739 53,198 80,472
Chemicals 12,387 22,684 98 424 3,274 3,418 70,842
Machinery 51,033 116,272 4,679 14,652 798 3,354 119,382
Clothing and footwear 4,481 12,263 1,599 252 321 993 9,486
Scientific instruments 3,080 5,050 758 1,844 49 1,107 n.a.
Other 33,173 102,213 11,887 21,501 2,383 7,932 525,594
TOTAL 167,265 302,551 44,110 56,491 25,564 70,002 805,776

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Report: Baltic Republics: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania [London], No. 1, 1995, 47.

Table 31. Lithuania: Foreign Investment by Country, September 1994

Country Percentage
   
Britain 25
Germany 16
United States 12
Russia 7
Poland 6
Austria 6
Other 28
TOTAL 100

Source: Based on information from Lithuania, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Department of Economic Relations, 1995.


1. --means negligible.
2. Kohtla-Järve became a city after World War II.
3. --not applicable.
4. Natural population growth means number of births minus number of deaths.
5. In millions of 1990 Russian rubles.
6. In thousands.
7. Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.
8. n.a.--not available.
9. In millions of kroons (for value of the kroon--see Glossary).
10. Yugoslavia disintegrated in 1991. Two successor republics, Serbia and Montenegro, have asserted the formation of a joint independent state, which they call Yugoslavia, but the United States has not formally recognized this entity as a state.
11. Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.
12. EBRD--European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
13. Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.
14. In thousands of hectares.
15. In thousands of tons.
16. In quintals per hectare.
17. --means negligible.
18. Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.
19. n.a.--not available.
20. Between 1951 and 1955, the total net flow of migrants was only 16,900 (an average of 3,400 per year). Between 1956 and 1960, it increased to 58,000 (an average of 11,600 per year). The latter period, however, included thousands of returning deportees.
21. n.a.--not available.
22. --means negligible.
23. n.a.--not applicable.
24. Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.
25. n.a.--not available.
26. n.a.--not available.
27. Includes mainly housing and personal services, government, health and social security, education, and recreational and cultural services.
28. In thousands.
29. In thousands of tons.
30. Live weight.
31. In thousands of hectares.
32. Estimated.
33. Figures from partner countries' trade accounts.
34. Figures from Lithuania's trade accounts.
35. Figures from partner countries' trade accounts.
36. Figures from Lithuania's trade accounts.
37. n.a.--not available.
38. Estimated.

Lithuania - TABLE OF CONTENTS


Go Up - Top of Page

Make allRefer Reference your HomepageAdd allRefer Reference to your FavoritesGo to Top of PagePrint this PageSend this Page to a Friend


Information Courtesy: The Library of Congress - Country Studies


Content on this web site is provided for informational purposes only. We accept no responsibility for any loss, injury or inconvenience sustained by any person resulting from information published on this site. We encourage you to verify any critical information with the relevant authorities.

 

 

 
 


About Us | Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy | Links Directory
Link to allRefer | Add allRefer Search to your site

allRefer
All Rights reserved. Site best viewed in 800 x 600 resolution.