Population: 3,717,000 (1995 estimate). Population declined in early 1990s because of low natural growth rates and net out-migration. In 1994 birth rate 12.0 per 1,000 population; death rate 12.8 per 1,000 population.Total fertility rate 2.1 children per woman in 1991. Population density 57.0 persons per square kilometer. Life expectancy 69.1 years in 1993 (63.3 years for males and 75.0 years for females).
Ethnic Groups: According to 1994 official estimate, Lithua-nians 81.1 percent, Russians 8.5 percent, Poles 7.0 percent, Belarusians 1.5 percent, Ukrainians 1.0 percent, and others (including Latvians, Tatars, Gypsies, Germans, Estonians, and Jews) 0.9 percent.
Languages: Official language Lithuanian; Russian, Polish, Bela-rusian, Ukrainian, and other languages also used.
Religion: Predominantly Roman Catholic. Other denomina-tions include Evangelical Reformed, Evangelical Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Uniate, and Jewish.
Education: According to 1992 constitution, education com-pulsory from age six to sixteen and free at all levels. In 1993-94 some 510,500 students in 2,317 primary and secondary schools, 45,200 students in 108 secondary specialized institu-tions, and 53,000 students in fifteen higher education institu-tions (including universities). Optional religious instruction introduced in schools in 1991. Literacy rate 99 percent in 1994.
Health and Welfare: Sufficient facilities to guarantee free medical care. In 1990 forty-six physicians and dentists, 127 paramedical personnel, and 124 hospital beds per 10,000 inhabitants. Private health care practice legalized in late 1980s, but health care system remains mostly state owned and state run. Medical care does not meet Western standards; hindered by shortages of medical equipment, supplies, and drugs. National social security system provides cradle-to-grave social insurance and social benefits.
Labor Force: 1.9 million (1994 estimate); industry 32 percent; construction 12 percent; agriculture 18 percent; science, education, and culture 14 percent; health care 7 percent; transportation and communications 7 percent; and trade and government 10 percent.
Data as of January 1995