International and Regional Organizations
Since the early 1950s, Nepal has pursued a calculated
nonaligned policy and has become an active participant in
international organizations. Nepal was admitted to the UN
Prior to its admission, Nepal already was a member of
specialized UN agencies, such as the Food and Agriculture
Organization (1951); the United Nations Educational,
and Cultural Organization (1952); the World Health
(1953); and the Economic Council for Asia and the Far East
Kathmandu often voted with the nonaligned group at the UN.
Nepal became a member of the World Bank and the
International Monetary Fund
Nepal also was a member
Universal Postal Union, the International Civil Aviation
Organization, the International Red Cross, and a host of
As a member of the Group of 72, Nepal was a vociferous
for a new international economic order for the equitable
distribution of resources and services between the
countries and the developing world. In 1977 Nepal
major foreign aid donors to form an aid-Nepal consortium
Nepal's ability to coordinate aid projects
(see Foreign Aid
Kathmandu tended to use its membership in international
organizations as a forum to articulate its difficulties
Delhi. For example, Nepal's position on the trade and
disputes was aired at IMF and World Bank meetings.
most of the time Nepal voted with India in the UN. In 1987
enhanced its image in the UN when the General Assembly
establish a Regional Center for Peace and Disarmament in
headquartered at Kathmandu. In June 1988, for the second
twenty years, Nepal was elected to a two-year term as a
nonpermanent member of the UN Security Council. At the
the UN secretary general, Nepal sent observers and troops
supervise the Soviet troop withdrawal from Afghanistan.
Nepal also participated in various other forums for
lessdeveloped nations. In February 1985, Nepal hosted the
session of the Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee.
participated in the thirtieth anniversary commemoration of
Asian-African Conference in Bandung, Indonesia, in 1985
extraordinary meeting of the Coordinating Bureau of the
Countries on Namibia in New Delhi, at which it reiterated
support for the Namibian people.
In all the nonaligned summits held since 1961, the
delegation has been led by the king. In these summits,
relentlessly has pleaded for the acceptance of peaceful
and the right to remain free from military involvement.
Nepal scored a diplomatic victory in 1986 when, by
decision, Kathmandu was chosen as the venue for the
secretariat of SAARC. In 1987 Nepal organized the first
summit of SAARC in Kathmandu in which King Birendra
commitment to peace, stability, and regional cooperation.
success of this meeting and the conclusion of agreements
establish a SAARC food security reserve and to suppress
enhanced Nepal's prestige. Although bilateral issues were
allowed to be raised in SAARC meetings, Nepal used the
parley with the smaller states of the region on the basis
commonality of fear of Indian preeminence.
* * *
Scholarship on contemporary political developments in
limited. Although outdated, Leo E. Rose and John T.
Nepal: Profile of a Himalayan Kingdom; Leo E. Rose
Margaret W. Fisher's The Politics of Nepal;
Gaige's Regionalism and National Unity in Nepal;
Rishikesh Shaha's Nepali Politics remain
contributions on the subject. On recent political
Nepal, Rishikesh Shaha's Politics in Nepal,
1980-1990 is an
eminently readable account. The chapter on Nepal in Craig
al.'s Government and Politics in South Asia is
providing a regional perspective. Roop Singh Baraith's
Politics in South Asia and Parmanand's The Nepali
since Its Inception are useful collateral works. The
Institution's Yearbook on International Communist
covers activities of the Nepalese communists.
The complete text with amendments of the Nepali
can be found in Albert P. Blaustein and Gisbert H. Flanz's
Constitutions of the Countries of the World.
Nepal's administrative structure is in transition, Hem
Agrawal's The Administrative System of Nepal and
Shaha's Essays in the Practice of Government in
basic resources. On human rights issues, Amnesty
Annual Report and special reports as well as Asia
special reports on Nepal are extremely useful.
There is no comprehensive up-to-date work on Nepal's
international relations and foreign policy. Leo E. Rose's
Strategy for Survival and S.D. Muni's Foreign
Nepal are notable works. Of the several works on
relations, the following are useful: Ramakant's
India; Shankar Kumar Jha's Indo-Nepal
Ghoble's China-Nepal Relations and India; and
Das's Nepal and Its Neighbors. For reportage on
politics and international affairs, weekly reports in the
Eastern Economic Review and its Asia Yearbook,
essays on Nepal in Asian Survey, and Europa
Book are good sources. More detailed daily chronicles
found in the Joint Publications Research Service's JPRS
Near East and South Asia; and the Asian
further information and complete citations,
Data as of September 1991