The Social State
President Tomás appointed Marcello José das Neves
succeed Salazar as prime minister, although the regime did
admit for some time that Salazar would not be returning to
Caetano was a teacher, jurist, and scholar of
reputation who had been one of the drafters of the 1933
constitution. Considered a moderate within the regime, he
taken unpopular stands in opposition to Salazar. He had
as rector of Lisbon University in 1960 in protest over
repression of student demonstrations. Unlike Salazar he
the upper middle class, was ebullient and personable, and
contact with the people.
It was clear from the start that Caetano was a
of leader. He spoke of "evolution within continuity,"
enough to keep up with expectations but not so fast as to
antagonize conservatives. He brought technocrats into the
government and eased police repression. The elections held
1969 were the freest in decades. He even altered the
of the regime; the New State became the Social State, but
remained essentially an authoritarian regime.
In contrast to Salazar, Caetano advocated an
economic policy and promoted rapid development and
consumption without, however, supplementing the means of
production. The consequence of liberalization was the
perceptible inflation in years, reaching 15 percent on
working-class staples as codfish and rice in the early
Prime Minister Caetano had inherited Salazar's office
his power nor, apparently, his skill as a politician and
economist. President Tomás, meanwhile, had emerged with
authority, as Salazar's death put him in a position to
the constitutional authority of the presidency to the
Deeply conservative and supported by an entrenched right
within the official political movement, Tomás employed
an army coup to oppose Caetano's policy of liberalization.
Caetano took a harder line on Africa in an effort to head
opposition by the president and the officers close to him.
As the events of spring 1974 were to demonstrate, the
of Salazar's New State and Caetano's Social State had
personalities. In existence for nearly fifty years, the
institutions of the corporate state had never put down
Portuguese political soil. Apathy had not implied support.
April 25, 1974, the officers and men of the Armed Forces
(Movimento das Forças Armadas--MFA) ousted Caetano and
paving the way for a junta under General António de
take command of the Portuguese Republic.
* * *
A comprehensive introduction to the history of the
Peninsula is a two-volume study by Stanley G. Payne, A
of Spain and Portugal. The best history of Portugal in
English language up to the First Republic is H.V.
A New History of Portugal. A succinct survey of
overseas empire is C.R. Boxer's Four Centuries of
Expansion, 1415-1825. Douglas L. Wheeler provides a
treatment of the First Republic in Republican
sympathetic portrait of António de Oliveira Salazar can be
in Hugh Kay's Salazar and Modern Portugal.
State is analyzed by Howard J. Wiarda in Corporatism
Development and by Tom Gallagher in Portugal: A
Twentieth-Century Interpretation. The standard history
Portugal in Africa is James Duffy's Portuguese
Walter C. Opello, Jr. covers recent history in his book,
Portugal: From Monarchy to Pluralist Democracy.
further information and complete citations,
Data as of January 1993