Size: Land area 637,540 square kilometers; coastline
3,025 kilometers; sovereignty claimed over territorial waters up
to 200 nautical miles.
Topography: Flat plateau surfaces and plains
predominate; principal exception rugged east-west ranges in far
north that include Shimbir Berris, highest point at 2,407 meters.
Climate and Hydrology: Continuously hot except at
higher elevations in north; two wet seasons bring erratic
rainfall, largely April to June and October and November,
averaging under 500 millimeters in much of the country; droughts
frequent; only Jubba River in somewhat wetter southwest has
permanent water flow. Shabeelle River, also in southwest, flows
about seven months of year.