Armed Forces: In 1994 armed forces totaled about 6,850
active personnel, consisting of army, 5,000; air force, 1,000; and
navy, 850. Missions are to protect against foreign aggression and
to maintain internal security. Armed forces aided in these missions
by various paramilitary forces.
Major Military Units: Army largest and best-equipped
service and primary unit of defense. Air force and navy both
smaller and subordinate to army. All three services hindered by
equipment maintenance problems and low states of combat readiness.
Military Equipment: Army equipment mostly older and
poorly maintained weapons, largely of British, Brazilian, Swiss,
Swedish, Israeli, and Finnish manufacture. Air force equipped with
combat, transport, and training aircraft. Navy possesses eight
sizable ships, including two corvettes and four fast-attack craft.
All three services experience budgetary and maintenance problems.
Defense Budget: Defense spending high in 1960s, declined
in 1970s and 1980s. In 1992 defense budget about US$105 million,
less than 2 percent of budgetary expenditures.
Foreign Military Relations: During colonial and early
independence periods, military training and equipment came from
Britain. In 1960s and after, military relations diversified to
include Soviet Union, China, German Democratic Republic, and Libya.
In 1990s Ghana revived military ties with Britain, United States,
and other Western countries. Ghana also providing military units
for peacekeeping operations in Liberia and Rwanda and observers and
police for several United Nations missions.
Internal Security Forces: Consist of more than 16,000
General Police, 5,000-member People's Militia, and National Civil
Defence Force composed of all able-bodied citizens. Since
independence stature of police has varied according to role in
suppression of dissent, extortion, and bribery. In 1990s police
involved in various United Nations international peacekeeping
Data as of November 1994