Population: 195,683,531 in July 1992, with 1.7
annual growth rate. Sixty-nine percent in rural areas;
population density--major islands more than 500 persons
kilometer; 100 persons or fewer per square kilometer in
Outer Islands (see Glossary).
city with 11.5 million in 1990. Government
Program (see Glossary) fosters relocation from densely populated
to less-populated islands.
Ethnic Groups: Javanese 45 percent, Sundanese 14
Madurese 7.5 percent, coastal Malays 7.5 percent, others
Language: Official language
Bahasa Indonesia (see Glossary);
668 other languages also spoken. Languages with 1 million or
more speakers (in estimated numerical order):
Sundanese, Malay, Madurese, Minangkabau, Balinese,
Acehnese, Toba Batak, Makassarese, Banjarese, Sasak,
Batak, and Rejang.
Religion: Most (87 percent) observe Islam; 6
Protestant, 3 percent Roman Catholic, 2 percent Hindu, 1
Buddhist, 1 percent other.
Education: Twelve-year education system
one through six; junior high school--grades seven through
senior high school--grades ten through twelve). Mandatory
level, optional secondary education. System supervised by
Department of Education and Culture (nonreligious, public
about 85 percent of total enrollment) and Department of
Affairs (religious, private, and semiprivate
percent of total enrollment). Adult literacy rate 77
1991. Emphasis on the
Pancasila (see Glossary) in public
most religious schools emphasize traditional Islamic
900 institutions of higher education; University of
Jakrata founded by Dutch in 1930s; Gadjah Mada University
Yogyakarta founded by Indonesians in 1946.
Health: In 1990 life expectancy 62.0 years for
58.4 for men; infant mortality rate 71 per 1,000 live
annual population growth rate 2.0 percent. Three-tier
health centers in late 1980s; 0.06 hospital beds per 1,000
population lowest rate among Association of Southeast
members. Traditional and modern health practices employed.
Data as of November 1992