Besides electing Akayev, the 1990 parliament fashioned the legislative
foundation for the political transformation of the republic, in
concert with the president. Perhaps the biggest accomplishment
in this phase was the drafting and passage, in May 1993, of the
country's constitution. The constitution mandates three branches
of government: a unicameral parliament; an executive branch, consisting
of government and local officials appointed by the president;
and a judiciary, with a presidentially appointed Supreme Court
and lower courts.
In many ways, however, the constitution has not been put into
force. Akayev is still president under a popular mandate gained
in an uncontested election in 1991, and most of the judicial system
has not been appointed. The existing bicameral parliament, which
was elected early in 1995, does not match the unicameral body
prescribed by the constitution. This structural change was attained
through popular referendum, for which the constitution does not
provide, although the same referendum simultaneously gave popular
(and retroactive) permission for this abrogation of the constitution.
In February 1996, Akayev's proposed constitutional amendments
strengthening the office of president were approved by 94 percent
of voters in a national referendum.
Data as of March 1996