You are here -allRefer - Reference - Country Study & Country Guide - Mongolia >

allRefer Reference and Encyclopedia Resource

allRefer    
allRefer
   


-- Country Study & Guide --     

 

Mongolia

 
Country Guide
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Armenia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Belarus
Belize
Bhutan
Bolivia
Brazil
Bulgaria
Cambodia
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Caribbean Islands
Comoros
Cyprus
Czechoslovakia
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Estonia
Ethiopia
Finland
Georgia
Germany
Germany (East)
Ghana
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Cote d'Ivoire
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Latvia
Laos
Lebanon
Libya
Lithuania
Macau
Madagascar
Maldives
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Nepal
Nicaragua
Nigeria
North Korea
Oman
Pakistan
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Romania
Russia
Saudi Arabia
Seychelles
Singapore
Somalia
South Africa
South Korea
Soviet Union [USSR]
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Syria
Tajikistan
Thailand
Turkmenistan
Turkey
Uganda
United Arab Emirates
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Venezuela
Vietnam
Yugoslavia
Zaire

Mongolia

Domestic Trade and Other Services

In pre-1921 Mongolia, domestic trade and services were primitive. Few commodities were exchanged; those that were primarily were by barter. Traders were almost entirely foreigners--Chinese and Russian--except for Mongolians who conducted trade and provided services at Mongolia's monasteries. After the 1921 revolution, the government began seizing control of the internal trade system and transforming it into a socialist distribution network with Soviet assistance. In 1921 the Mongolian Central Cooperative was established; in the late 1920s, such Soviet trade organizations as the Stormong Company and the Sherst Company began to displace all other foreign traders in the Mongolian economy. In 1929 the Mongolian Central Cooperative was expanded, and Chinese traders were expelled from the country. In 1932 the Mongolian Central Cooperative was reorganized as the Union of Consumer Cooperatives. The Mongolian and the Soviet governments also founded a joint-stock wholesale trading company, Mongsovbuner, which took over the Mongolian Central Cooperative's wholesale operations. In 1934 the Soviet Union handed over its share of Mongsovbuner to the Mongolian government, which transformed Mongsovbuner into the Mongolian State Trading Office. The expropriation of monastic property in the late 1920s and the early 1930s effectively ended the monasteries' participation in trade. Forced collectivization of arads, however, failed miserably and set back government attempts to socialize the internal trade system. Nevertheless, about 90 percent of retail trade was carried out by state and cooperative trade organizations by 1940.

During World War II, state procurement from individual households was instituted by means of taxes in kind and obligatory delivery of goods. The wartime taxation measures provided the foundation of Mongolia's procurement and distribution system as the economy was collectivized in the 1950s. During the Three-Year Plan (1958-60), the Union of Consumer Cooperatives was abolished, and its components were consolidated with state trading organizations under the newly formed Ministry of Trade and Procurement. By 1983 the state trade network accounted for 95 percent of retail trade turnover; cooperative agricultural trade represented the remainder. In the late 1980s, this ministry still ran Mongolia's internal trade and state procurement systems.

Data as of June 1989

Mongolia - TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • The Economy

  • Go Up - Top of Page

    Make allRefer Reference your HomepageAdd allRefer Reference to your FavoritesGo to Top of PagePrint this PageSend this Page to a Friend


    Information Courtesy: The Library of Congress - Country Studies


    Content on this web site is provided for informational purposes only. We accept no responsibility for any loss, injury or inconvenience sustained by any person resulting from information published on this site. We encourage you to verify any critical information with the relevant authorities.

     

     

     
     


    About Us | Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy | Links Directory
    Link to allRefer | Add allRefer Search to your site

    allRefer
    All Rights reserved. Site best viewed in 800 x 600 resolution.