All trains were powered by diesel locomotives, the last steam
locomotive having been consigned to a museum in the 1970s.
Freight cars were of Soviet manufacture, and passenger cars were
imported from East Germany. More than 90 percent of all railroad
freight was loaded and unloaded by mechanized means.
In the late 1980s, Mongolia had 1,750 kilometers of 1.524-
meter, broad-gauge track. Major lines included the Ulaanbaatar
Railroad, which connected Ulaanbaatar with Suhbaatar and Naushki,
Soviet Union, in the north, and with Dzamyi Uud, Mongolia, and
Erenhot, China, in the south. The eastern line connected
Choybalsan with Ereentsav, Mongolia, and Borzya, Soviet Union.
Another line linked the Trans-Siberian Railway with Beijing.
Branch lines ran from Darhan to the Sharin Gol coalfield; from
Salhit, near Darhan, to Erdenet; from Bagahangay to the Baga Nuur
coal mine; and from Har-Ayrag to the Bor Ondor fluorite mines.
Mongolia's railroad company, Ulaanbaatar Railroad, was a jointstock venture with the Soviet Union; both countries had equal
shares in the company. The director was Soviet; the deputy
director and the chairman of the board were Mongolian. In 1985
Ulaanbaatar Railroad carried 14.8 million tons of freight and
5,822.8 million ton-kilometers of freight turnover, accounting
for 75 percent of all freight turnover. In 1985 the railroad
transported 2.1 million passengers and accounted for 432.2
million passenger-kilometers, or 30.6 percent of all passenger
turnover. Railroads also accounted for 97 to 98 percent of all
import-export transportation. Each year Mongolia signed a
multilateral railroad transportation protocol governing importexport freight transport with the Soviet Union, China, and North
Data as of June 1989