Size: Total area 2,505,813 square kilometers;
land area 2,376,000 square kilometers; coastline 716 kilometers;
largest country in Africa.
Topography: Plateau and plains predominate.
Mountainous areas behind Red Sea coast, in far south, and in far
west. Only interior highlands of consequence are Nuba Mountains
west of white Nile River. All significant streams flow to White
Nile and Blue Nile rivers, which join just north of Khartoum to
form River Nile. Extensive swamps in south, especially along Bahr
al Ghazal (southernmost part of White Nile).
Climate: Rainfall ranges from rare and occasional
in far northern desert to relatively abundant and frequent (rainy
seasons of six to nine months) in southern third of Sudan. In
most years central third has enough rain for agriculture but lack
of rain in 1980s and 1991 has caused years of drought. Dust storms
(often preceding rainstorms) common in north and northern parts
of central Sudan, reducing visibility and causing much discomfort.
Mean temperatures and daily maximums generally high; desert temperatures
often quite cool at night.
Data as of June 1991